Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist.
1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis. (+info)
Role of the CNS melanocortin system in the response to overfeeding.
The voluntary suppression of food intake that accompanies involuntary overfeeding is an effective regulatory response to positive energy balance. Because the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin system in the hypothalamus promotes anorexia and weight loss and is an important mediator of energy regulation, we hypothesized that it may contribute to the hypophagic response to overfeeding. Two groups of rats were overfed to 105 and 116% of control body weight via a gastric catheter. In the first group, in situ hybridization was used to measure POMC gene expression in the rostral arcuate (ARC). Overfeeding increased POMC mRNA in the ARC by 180% relative to levels in control rats. For rats in the second group, the overfeeding was stopped, and they were infused intracerebroventricularly with SHU9119 (SHU), a melanocortin (MC) antagonist at the MC3 and MC4 receptor, or vehicle. Although SHU (0.1 nmol) had no effect on food intake of control rats, intake of overfed rats increased by 265% relative to CSF-treated controls. This complete reversal of regulatory hypophagia not only maintained but actually increased the already elevated weight of overfed rats, whereas CSF-treated overfed rats lost weight. These results indicate that CNS MCs mediate hypophagic signaling in response to involuntary overfeeding and support the hypothesis that MCs are important in the central control of energy homeostasis. (+info)
Role of central melanocortins in endotoxin-induced anorexia.
Inflammation and microbial infection produce symptoms, including fever, anorexia, and hypoactivity, that are thought to be mediated by endogenous proinflammatory cytokines. Melanocortins are known to act centrally to suppress effects on fever and other sequelae of proinflammatory cytokine actions in the central nervous system, but the roles of melanocortins in anorexia and hypoactivity occurring during the acute phase response are unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effects of exogenous and endogenous alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia in relation to their effects on fever. Rats were fasted overnight to promote feeding behavior, then injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 micrograms/kg ip), followed 30 min later by intracerebroventricular injection of either alpha-MSH or the melanocortin receptor subtype 3/subtype 4 (MC3-R/MC4-R) antagonist SHU-9119. Food intake, locomotor activity, and body temperature (Tb) were monitored during the ensuing 24-h period. Each of two intracerebroventricular doses of alpha-MSH (30 and 300 ng) potentiated the suppressive effects of LPS on food intake and locomotion, despite the fact that the higher dose alleviated LPS-induced fever. In control rats that were not treated with LPS, only the higher dose of alpha-MSH significantly inhibited food intake, and Tb and locomotor activity were unaffected. To assess the roles of endogenous central melanocortins, LPS-treated rats received intracerebroventricular SHU-9119 (200 ng). Central MC3-R/MC4-R blockade did not affect Tb or food intake in the absence of LPS treatment, but it reversed the LPS-induced reduction in 24-h food intake and increased LPS-induced fever without altering the LPS-induced suppression of locomotion. Taken together, the results suggest that exogenous and endogenous melanocortins acting centrally exert divergent influences on different aspects of the acute phase response, suppressing LPS-induced fever but contributing to LPS-induced anorexia and hypoactivity. (+info)
A-Current down-modulated by sigma receptor in frog pituitary melanotrope cells through a G protein-dependent pathway.
Gramicidin perforated patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effects of two sigma 1 receptor ligands, (+)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-N-methyl-1, 4-diphenyl-1-ethyl-but-3-en-1-ylamine hydrochloride (JO 1784) and (+)-pentazocine, on the transient outward potassium current (IA) in cultured frog melanotrope cells. (+)-Pentazocine reversibly decreased the current amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of (+)-pentazocine were mimicked by JO 1784 and were markedly reduced by the sigma 1 receptor antagonist, N, N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-2(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]-ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE 100). Inactivation rate of IA was best fitted with a double exponential function, yielding time constants of 23.7 and 112.5 ms. (+)-Pentazocine (20 microM) accelerated the current decay, decreasing the time constants to 10.7 and 59 ms, respectively. Current-voltage experiments revealed that (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) did neither modify the open-state I/V curves nor the voltage dependence of IA. However, (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) shifted the steady-state inactivation curve toward more negative potentials and increased the time constant of the time-dependent removal of inactivation. In whole-cell experiments, internal dialysis of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiophosphate) (100 microM) irreversibly prolonged the response to (+)-pentazocine. In addition, cholera toxin pretreatment (1 microgram. ml-1; 12 h) suppressed the inhibition of IA by (+)-pentazocine (20 microM). It is concluded that in frog melanotrope cells, a cholera toxin-sensitive, G protein-dependent inhibition of IA through a sigma 1 receptor activation, at least partially, underlies the excitatory effect of sigma ligands. (+info)
Conformation of the core sequence in melanocortin peptides directs selectivity for the melanocortin MC3 and MC4 receptors.
Melanocortin peptides regulate a variety of physiological processes. Five melanocortin receptors (MC-R) have been cloned and the MC3R and MC4R are the main brain MC receptors. The aim of this study was to identify structural requirements in both ligand and receptor that determine gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) selectivity for the MC3R versus the MC4R. Substitution of Asp10 in [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH for Gly10 from [Nle4]alpha-MSH, increased both activity and affinity for the MC4R while the MC3R remained unaffected. Analysis of chimeric MC3R/MC4Rs and mutant MC4Rs showed that Tyr268 of the MC4R mainly determined the low affinity for [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH. The data demonstrate that Asp10 determines selectivity for the MC3R, however, not through direct side chain interactions, but probably by influencing how the melanocortin core sequence is presented to the receptor-binding pocket. This is supported by mutagenesis of Tyr268 to Ile in the MC4R which increased affinity and activity for [Nle4]Lys-gamma2-MSH, but decreased affinity for two peptides with constrained cyclic structure of the melanocortin core sequence, MT-II and [D-Tyr4]MT-II, that also displayed lower affinity for the MC3R. This study provides a general concept for peptide receptor selectivity, in which the major determinant for a selective receptor interaction is the conformational presentation of the core sequence in related peptides to the receptor-binding pocket. (+info)
POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation.
To investigate the relevance of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) therapy in human gouty arthritis, we have tested the effect of several ACTH-related peptides in a murine model of experimental gout. Systemic treatment of mice with ACTH4-10 (MEHFRWG) (10-200 microgram s. c.) inhibited neutrophil accumulation without altering peripheral blood cell counts or circulating corticosterone levels. A similar effect was seen with alpha- and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormones (1-30 microgram s.c.). In vivo release of the chemokine KC-(detected in the lavage fluids before maximal influx of neutrophils) was significantly reduced (-50 to -60%) by ACTH4-10. Macrophage activation in vitro, determined as phagocytosis and KC release, was inhibited by ACTH and ACTH4-10 with approximate IC50 values of 30 nM and 100 microM, respectively. The melanocortin receptor type 3/4 antagonist SHU9119 prevented the inhibitory actions of ACTH4-10 both in vitro and in vivo. However, melanocortin type 3, but not type 4, receptor mRNA was detected in mouse peritoneal macrophages by RT-PCR. Therefore, we propose that activation of this receptor type by ACTH4-10 and related amino acid sequences attenuates KC release (and possibly production of other cytokines) from macrophages with consequent inhibition of the host inflammatory response, thus providing a notional anti-inflammatory mechanism for ACTH that is unrelated to stimulation of glucocorticoid release. (+info)
Enhanced expression of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) in normal human keratinocytes during differentiation: evidence for increased expression of POMC peptides near suprabasal layer of epidermis.
Immunohistochemical staining of human skin specimen showed the stronger localization of proopiomelanocortin peptides near the suprabasal layer of the epidermis, where keratinocytes are mostly differentiated. To test the possibilities of whether the production of proopiomelanocortin peptides or their receptor-binding activity or both is increased during differentiation of keratinocytes, we treated the cells in culture with Ca2+ to induce their differentiation. The production of proopiomelanocortin peptides and its gene expression were not induced significantly, but the binding ability of melanocortin receptor, as well as its gene expression were stimulated by Ca2+. Ultraviolet B irradiation, an inducer of differentiation, stimulated both proopiomelanocortin production and melanocortin receptor expression. These data show that normal human keratinocytes express melanocortin receptor similar to melanocytes, and that it is induced during differentiation. (+info)
The sigma-ligand (+)-pentazocine depresses M current and enhances calcium conductances in frog melanotrophs.
Gramicidin-perforated patch clamp experiments and microfluorimetric measurements were performed to study the ionic mechanisms involved in the sigma-receptor-mediated stimulation of frog (Rana ridibunda) pituitary melanotrophs. The sigma-ligand (+)-pentazocine (50 microM) depressed a sustained outward K(+) current. The kinetic properties of this K(+) component, investigated by analyzing tail currents, were reminiscent of those of the M current (I(M)), with an activation threshold close to -60 mV, a -21-mV half-maximal activation potential, and two-component exponential deactivation kinetics at -90 mV. (+)-Pentazocine (20 microM) produced a 12-mV rightward shift of the activation curve and accelerated the deactivation rate of the tail current. It is also demonstrated that (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) reversibly increased both voltage-dependent calcium conductances and internal calcium level. Altogether, these results suggest that the sigma-receptor-induced modulation of I(M) and calcium currents likely underlies the increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)]. (+info)