(1/447) 8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization.
From the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) inventory, thirteen 8-aminoquinoline analogs of primaquine were selected for screening against a panel of seven Plasmodium falciparum clones and isolates. Six of the 13 8-aminoquinolines had average 50% inhibitory concentrations between 50 and 100 nM against these P. falciparum clones and were thus an order of magnitude more potent than primaquine. However, excluding chloroquine-resistant clones and isolates, these 8-aminoquinolines were all an order of magnitude less potent than chloroquine. None of the 8-aminoquinolines was cross resistant with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast to the inactive primaquine prototype, 8 of the 13 8-aminoquinolines inhibited hematin polymerization more efficiently than did chloroquine. Although alkoxy or aryloxy substituents at position 5 uniquely endowed these 13 8-aminoquinolines with impressive schizontocidal activity, the structural specificity of inhibition of both parasite growth and hematin polymerization was low. (+info)
(2/447) A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial of a new oral combination of artemether and benflumetol (CGP 56697) with mefloquine in the treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand.
CGP 56697, a new oral fixed combination of artemether and benflumetol, was tested in a double-blinded, randomized trial in 252 adult patients treated either with CGP 56697 (4 x 4 tablets each containing 20 mg of artemether and 120 mg of benflumetol, given at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hr), or with mefloquine (three tablets of 250 mg at initial diagnosis, followed by two tablets of 250 mg at 8 hr). Baseline data of the two groups were comparable. The 28-day cure rate with CGP 56697 was lower than with mefloquine (69.3% versus 82.4%; P = 0.002). However, CGP 56697 was more effective than mefloquine in parasite clearance time (43 hr versus 66 hr; P < 0.001) fever clearance time (32 hr versus 54 hr; P < 0.005), and gametocyte clearance time (152 hr versus 331 hr; P < 0.001). This study revealed that CGP 56697 is effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand, but higher doses will probably be needed to improve the cure rate. (+info)
(3/447) Response of falciparum malaria to different antimalarials in Myanmar.
The purpose of the study was to ascertain the therapeutic efficacy of different treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the hospitals in Sagaing, northern and eastern Shan, to facilitate updating the existing national antimalarial drug policy. The proposed 14-day trial for monitoring the efficacy of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria is an efficient method for identifying treatment failure patterns at the intermediate level (township hospital) in the Union of Myanmar. Minimal clinical and parasitological data for days 0-14 were required to classify treatment failure and success. Clinical and parasitiological responses on day 3 and days 4-14 were used as clear examples of early and late treatment failure, respectively. Mefloquine is five times more likely to be effective than chloroquine and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (S-P), whereas chloroquine and S-P treatments have nearly identical failure patterns. The alarming frequency of clinical and parasitological failure (failure rate > 50%) following chloroquine treatment was reported in Sagaing and following S-P treatment in Sagaing and eastern Shan. (+info)
(4/447) Malaria prevention in travelers.
The prevention of malaria in travelers is becoming a more challenging clinical and public health problem because of the global development of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains of malaria and the increasing popularity of travel to exotic locales. Travelers can reduce their risk of acquiring malaria by using bed netting, wearing proper clothing and applying an insect repellent that contains N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. Chloroquine, once the standard agent for weekly malaria prophylaxis, is no longer reliably effective outside the Middle East and Central America because of the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Mefloquine is now the most effective and most recommended antimalarial agent on the U.S. market; however, the side effects of this agent have begun to limit its acceptance. Doxycycline is effective for malaria prophylaxis in travelers who are unable to take mefloquine. Daily proguanil taken in conjunction with weekly chloroquine is an option for pregnant patients traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Terminal prophylaxis with two weeks of primaquine phosphate can eliminate an asymptomatic carrier state and the later development of malaria in newly returned long-term travelers with probable exposure to Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale. Travelers who elect not to take an antimalarial agent or who are at high risk for malaria and are more than 24 hours from medical care can use self-treatment regimens such as those featuring pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine. Conventional agents may be contraindicated in certain travelers, especially pregnant women and small children, and several prophylactic agents are not available in the United States. Azithromycin and a number of malaria vaccines are currently under investigation. (+info)
(5/447) Efficacy and safety of atovaquone/proguanil compared with mefloquine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand.
The increasing frequency of therapeutic failures in falciparum malaria underscores the need for novel, rapidly effective antimalarial drugs or drug combinations. Atovaquone and proguanil are blood schizonticides that demonstrate synergistic activity against multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. In an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in Thailand, adult patients with acute P. falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to treatment with atovaquone and proguanil/hydrochloride (1,000 mg and 400 mg, respectively, administered orally at 24-hr intervals for three doses) or mefloquine (750 mg administered orally, followed 6 hr later by an additional 500-mg dose). Efficacy was assessed by cure rate (the percentage of patients in whom parasitemia was eliminated and did not recur during 28 days of follow-up), parasite clearance time (PCT), and fever clearance time (FCT). Safety was assessed by sequential clinical and laboratory assessments for 28 days. Atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than mefloquine (cure rate 100% [79 of 79] vs. 86% [68 of 79]; P < 0.002). The atovaquone/proguanil and mefloquine treatments did not differ with respect to PCT (mean = 65 hr versus 74 hr) or FCT (mean = 59 hr versus 51 hr). Adverse events were generally typical of malaria symptoms and each occurred in < 10% of the patients in either group, with the exception of increased vomiting found in the atovaquone/proguanil group. Transient elevations of liver enzyme levels occurred more frequently in patients treated with atovaquone/proguanil than with mefloquine, but the differences were not significant and values returned to normal by day 28 in most patients. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil was well tolerated and more effective than mefloquine in the treatment of acute uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand. (+info)
(6/447) Adverse effects in patients with acute falciparum malaria treated with artemisinin derivatives.
In prospective studies of acute uncomplicated, multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria on the western border of Thailand, the oral artemisinin derivatives were used alone in the treatment of 836 patients (artesunate 630, artemether 206), were combined with mefloquine (15-25 mg base/kg) in 2,826 patients, and mefloquine alone was used in 1,303 patients. The combined regimens of mefloquine plus an artemisinin derivative were associated with more side effects than those with an artemisinin derivative alone; acute nausea (31% versus 16%), vomiting (24% versus 11%), anorexia (51% versus 34%), and dizziness (47% versus 15%) (P < 0.001). Oral artesunate and artemether alone were very well tolerated. There was no difference in the incidence of possible adverse effects between the two drugs, and no evidence that either derivative caused allergic reactions, neurologic or psychiatric reactions, or cardiovascular or dermatologic toxicity. Blackwater fever occurred in three patients treated with mefloquine plus artesunate regimens. Oral artesunate and artemether are safe and well tolerated antimalarial drugs. (+info)
(7/447) Antimalarial drug resistance and combination chemotherapy.
Antimarial drug resistance develops when spontaneously occurring parasite mutants with reduced susceptibility are selected, and are then transmitted. Drugs for which a single point mutation confers a marked reduction in susceptibility are particularly vulnerable. Low clearance and a shallow concentration-effect relationship increase the chance of selection. Use of combinations of antimalarials that do not share the same resistance mechanisms will reduce the chance of selection because the chance of a resistant mutant surviving is the product of the per parasite mutation rates for the individual drugs, multiplied by the number of parasites in an infection that are exposed to the drugs. Artemisinin derivatives are particularly effective combination partners because (i) they are very active antimalarials, producing up to 10,000-fold reductions in parasite biomass per asexual cycle; (ii) they reduce malaria transmissibility; and (iii) no resistance to these drugs has been reported yet. There are good arguments for no longer using antimalarial drugs alone in treatment, and instead always using a combination with artemisinin or one of its derivatives. (+info)
(8/447) Risk factors for gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
The factors affecting the development of patent Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia were assessed in 5,682 patients entered prospectively into a series of antimalarial drug trials conducted in an area of low and seasonal transmission on the western border of Thailand. Of the 4,565 patients with admission thick smear assessments, 110 (2.4%) had gametocytemia. During the follow-up period 170 (3%) of all patients developed patent gametocytemia, which in 89% had developed by day 14 following treatment. In a multiple logistic regression model five factors were found to be independent risk factors at presentation for the development or persistence of gametocytemia during follow up; patent gametocytemia on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7-16, P < 0.001), anemia (hematocrit <30%) (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.3-6.5, P < 0.001), no coincident P. vivax malaria (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.04-11.5, P < 0.04), presentation with a recrudescent infection (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.1, P < 0.004), and a history of illness longer than two days (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.7-6.6, P < 0.001). Patients whose infections responded slowly to treatment or recrudesced subsequently were also more likely to carry gametocytes than those who responded rapidly or were cured (relative risks = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.7 and 2.8, 95% CI = 2.0-4.0, respectively; P < 0.001). These data provide further evidence of important epidemiologic interactions between P. falciparum and P. vivax, and drug resistance and transmission potential. (+info)