Use of long-acting depot progestogen in domililiary family planning.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate injections have been used as a long-term contraceptive by the domiciliary family planning service in Glasgow. The injections were particularly useful in women with a high risk of becoming pregnant and in whom oral or intrauterine contraception had failed or was unacceptable. The optimum dose was 200 mg every 15-16 weeks. It was accepted by an increasing proportion of women, only 12 out of 162 discontinuing because of side effects. Continuation rates compared favourably with those for the pill, but less well than those for intrauterine contraceptive devices. The theoretical hazards should be weighed against the positive good resulting from controlled fertility in domiciliary patients. (+info)
Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Korea.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease occurring in women of reproductive age and leading to progressive respiratory failure in spite of treatment. In Korea the first case was reported in 1984 and by 1997 a total of 23 cases had been reported. The clinical findings of these Korean cases are reviewed. METHODS: The details of 10 cases of LAM on file at Seoul National University Hospital were reviewed together with those of 13 cases previously reported from other Korean institutes. Two, including the only one to be reported in a man, were excluded after reviewing the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, leaving a total of 21 cases in the present study. RESULTS: All 21 patients were women and in all cases the disease was proven pathologically. The mean (SD) age at onset of symptoms was 32 (8.6) years. The most common symptoms were dyspnoea and pneumothorax which were seen in 19 (90%) and 13 (76%) patients, respectively. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased transfer factor (TLCO) (100%) and airflow limitation (67%). All the cases had characteristic cysts on high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning. The overall severity score based on HRCT scans correlated with the percentage predicted TLCO/VA (p = 0.03) and FEV1/FVC (p = 0.02). The patients were all treated with medroxyprogesterone and/or tamoxifen. Follow up was possible in 10 cases. Two of these patients appeared to stabilise with no appreciable change clinically or in lung function on medroxyprogesterone and/or tamoxifen, but the remaining patients all deteriorated with two dying of respiratory insufficiency and one of infection following lung transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As in other countries, in Korea LAM occurs exclusively in women and progresses despite hormonal treatment. (+info)
Effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on central abdominal fat, glycemic control, lipid metabolism, and vascular factors in type 2 diabetes: a prospective study.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on lipid metabolism, glycemic control, total body and central abdominal fat, blood pressure (BP), and arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV) in overweight postmenopausal females with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 12-month prospective study of 14 subjects (mean +/- SD age 57.5+/-5.6 years, BMI 29.5+/-4.8 kg/m2) randomized to 6 months of observation or HRT before crossover. HRT consisted of 2 months of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg daily, followed by 4 months CEE and medroxyprogesterone 5 mg daily. Measures included anthropometry, fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, LDL particle size, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), sex hormone-binding globulin, resting energy expenditure (REE), total and central abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), resting BP, APWV (by applanation tonometry), physical activity, well-being, and sexual function. RESULTS: Six months of HRT resulted in significant reductions in waist-to-hip ratio (-0.03+/-0.01 vs. 0.01+/-0.009, P = 0.007), HbA1c (-0.34+/-0.24 vs. 0.6+/-0.4%, P = 0.04), total cholesterol (-0.6+/-0.1 vs. 0.2+/-0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.001), central abdominal fat (-175+/-51 vs. -24+/-56 g, P = 0.05), and improved physical functioning (P = 0.05), compared with observation. There was a minor increase in REE with HRT (33+/-23 vs. -38+/-23 kJ/day, P = 0.04). Total fat mass, fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B, NEFA, resting BP, APWV, and physical activity were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal HRT in these overweight women with type 2 diabetes was associated with a reduction in central adiposity and improvement in lipid metabolism and glycemic control without deterioration in weight status or cardiovascular parameters measured. Whether HRT-induced improvements in these cardiovascular risk factors result in lower long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as observed in nondiabetic women, awaits further study. (+info)
Ovarian hormones in man: their effects on resting vascular tone, angiotensin converting enzyme activity and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction.
AIMS: Oestrogens in women have been shown to cause vasodilation which may reflect alterations in the activity of vascular angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and/or sensitivity to angiotensin II. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ovarian hormones on vascular tone, vascular ACE activity and vasoconstriction to angiotensin II in males. METHODS: Eight volunteers were randomised in a crossover design to oestradiol, medroxy-progesterone, and placebo. Vasoconstriction to angiotensin I and angiotensin II was assessed by forearm plethysmography. RESULTS: Although baseline forearm flow was increased with oestradiol, suggesting generalized vasodilation, there were no changes in the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin I or angiotensin II. Medroxy-progesterone affected neither baseline flow nor vasoconstrictor responses. The results expressed as percentage reduction in flow (mean +/- s.d.) were: angiotensin I 48 pmol ml-1: placebo -48 +/- 14%; oestradiol -42 +/- 16%; medroxyprogesterone -43 +/- 8% and for angiotensin II 16 pmol ml-1: placebo -42 +/- 10%; oestradiol -39 +/- 11%; medroxyprogesterone -46 +/- 13%. CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of oestradiol caused vasodilation in males, the effect was not due to alterations in vascular ACE activity or to altered sensitivity to angiotensin II. (+info)
Progesterone regulates human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
Emerging evidence indicates that sex steroid hormones regulate telomerase in target tissues. We have reported that estrogen activates telomerase through transactivation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Progesterone usually antagonizes estrogen action in reproductive organs, but the effect on telomerase remains unclear. In this study, we examine the effects of progesterone on the gene expression of hTERT in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines expressing progesterone receptor. Progesterone significantly induced hTERT mRNA expression within 3 h after exposure. This transient effect peaked at 12 h and then decreased. In contrast, exposure to progesterone for > 48 h antagonized estrogen effects and inhibited the estrogen-induced activation of hTERT expression; the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1/Cip1 plays an integral role in this inhibition. Thus, progesterone exerts diverse effects on hTERT mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. We also found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway mediates both the short-term and long-term effects of progesterone on hTERT gene expression. These findings support the notion that hTERT gene is a target of both estrogen and progesterone. (+info)
Progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone, inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human vascular endothelial cells.
-It has been shown that ovarian steroid hormones can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. As hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, progestins are added to estrogens to eliminate the increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effects of progestins on the atherogenic process have not been well understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of progestins on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the presence of progesterone receptors in HUVECs. Progesterone clearly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated expression of VCAM-1 protein and its mRNA in HUVECs. Synthetic progesterone receptor agonist R5020 also inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated VCAM-1 expression, whereas medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) failed to do so. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that progesterone, but not MPA, inhibited DNA binding of the transcription nuclear factor-kappaB, which is critical for the inducible expression of VCAM-1. Because the expression of VCAM-1 is one of the earliest events that occurs in the atherogenic process, this adhesion molecule might be a target molecule for progesterone on vascular walls. The contrasting effects of progesterone and MPA seem clinically important, inasmuch as MPA is a widely used progestin in the regimen of hormone replacement therapy. (+info)
Effects of cortisone acetate, methylprednisolone and medroxyprogesterone on wound contracture and epithelization in rabbits.
Standardized flank wounds were made on 20 rabbits divided into the following five groups: Group 1 served as controls, Group 2 were given cortisone acetate 6.25 mg/kg/day (I.M.), Group 3--methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) 1 mg/kg/day, Group 4--medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) 35 mg/kg/day, Group 5--methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day and medroxyprogresterone 35 mg/kg/day. Wound contracture and epithelization was measured by planimetry of photographs taken twice weekly; weekly weights were recorded, and the maturation phase of wound healing followed in the control and methylprednisolone groups. All three steroids prolonged the latent phase of wound healing, slowed the rate and decreased the total amount of contracture. Cortisone showed the most inhibition of wound contracture and was the only steroid to inhibit epithelization suggesting it may have a slightly different or more potent mode of action. When the methylprednisolone group was followed for seven weeks on daily injections, the maturation phase of wound healing was inhibited, and this inhibition persisted during the next nine weeks after the drug was withdrawn. Only the control and the medroxyprogesterone group gained weight. Combining medroxyprogesterona and methylprednisolone resulted in the severest weight loss of 20% with a 60% mortality. (+info)
Dose response effect of cyclical medroxyprogesterone on blood pressure in postmenopausal women.
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare with placebo the dose-response effect of cyclical doses of the C21 progestogen, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on blood pressure (BP) when administered to normotensive postmenopausal women receiving a fixed mid-range daily dose of conjugated equine oestrogen (CEE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty normotensive postmenopausal women (median age 53 years) participated in the study which used a double-blind crossover design. There were four randomised treatment phases, each of 4 weeks duration. The four blinded treatments were MPA 2.5 mg, MPA 5 mg, MPA 10 mg and matching placebo, taken for the last 14 days of each 28 day treatment cycle. CEE 0.625 mg was also administered once daily as open labelled tablets to all subjects throughout the study. Clinic BP was measured weekly with the mean values of weeks 3 and 4 of each phase used for analysis. Ambulatory BP was performed in the final week of each phase. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo phase, end of phase clinic BP was unchanged by any of the progestogen treatments. There was a dose-dependent decrease in ambulatory daytime diastolic and mean arterial BP with the progestogen treatments compared with placebo (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In a regimen of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with a fixed mid-range daily dose of CEE combined with a cyclical regimen of a C21 progestogen spanning the current clinical dose range, the progestogen has either no effect or a small dose-dependent reduction in clinic and ambulatory BPs over one treatment cycle. (+info)