Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. (+info)
Michelangelo: art, anatomy, and the kidney.
Michelangelo (1475-1564) had a life-long interest in anatomy that began with his participation in public dissections in his early teens, when he joined the court of Lorenzo de' Medici and was exposed to its physician-philosopher members. By the age of 18, he began to perform his own dissections. His early anatomic interests were revived later in life when he aspired to publish a book on anatomy for artists and to collaborate in the illustration of a medical anatomy text that was being prepared by the Paduan anatomist Realdo Colombo (1516-1559). His relationship with Colombo likely began when Colombo diagnosed and treated him for nephrolithiasis in 1549. He seems to have developed gouty arthritis in 1555, making the possibility of uric acid stones a distinct probability. Recurrent urinary stones until the end of his life are well documented in his correspondence, and available documents imply that he may have suffered from nephrolithiasis earlier in life. His terminal illness with symptoms of fluid overload suggests that he may have sustained obstructive nephropathy. That this may account for his interest in kidney function is evident in his poetry and drawings. Most impressive in this regard is the mantle of the Creator in his painting of the Separation of Land and Water in the Sistine Ceiling, which is in the shape of a bisected right kidney. His use of the renal outline in a scene representing the separation of solids (Land) from liquid (Water) suggests that Michelangelo was likely familiar with the anatomy and function of the kidney as it was understood at the time. (+info)
The marriage of art and science in health care.
This paper invites the reader to consider the marriage of art and science as antidote to much epidemic disease, for our greater personal and societal health. The history of arts medicine is reviewed, identifying its persisting although often tenuous link with health care from pre-history to the present. The author describes his personal encounter with art at the bedside, and how it led to his establishing a comprehensive artist-in-residence program at his university hospital. The scientific evidence underscoring the efficacy of art-making for physical and psychological health are outlined, together with the physiological and biochemical data. The author describes his own program, and offers examples of healing art in action. (+info)
Gin Lane: did Hogarth know about fetal alcohol syndrome?
Medical historians have searched for evidence that the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) were recognized long before its modern description in 1973. This search has often focused on the 'gin epidemic' in 18th century London, and especially William Hogarth's Gin Lane, which some authors allege reflects an awareness of the facial characteristics of the syndrome. While the 'gin epidemic' undoubtedly resulted in the increased birth of weak and sickly children, claims about Hogarth's awareness of the stigmata of the FAS are unfounded. The birth of weak and sickly children, and the high infant mortality rates associated with this period, long preceded the 'gin epidemic' and were primarily due to disease, starvation, exposure, and deliberate infanticide. (+info)
Benign familial hypermobility syndrome and Trendelenburg sign in a painting "The Three Graces" by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640).
Clinical features suggestive of hypermobility syndrome and a positive Trendelenburg sign are described in a painting "The Three Graces" (1638-1640) by Peter Paul Rubens, Prado, Madrid. The most obvious findings are scoliosis, positive Trendelenburg sign, and hyperextension of the metacarpal joints, hyperlordosis, and flat feet. The sitters, presumably Helene Fourment (second wife of Rubens) and her sisters, support the hereditary familial aspect of hypermobility. Manifest hypermobility of the hand has also been found in two other ancient paintings: "Saint Cyriaque" in the Heller Retable by Mathias Grunewald (1450-1528), Frankfurt, and "The wounded man" by Gaspare Traversi, Venice (1732-1769). The finding of signs of hypermobility in ancient paintings shows that artists who are keen observers of nature could describe, or at least record, this condition long before doctors did. The art of the past can be a useful tool in the field of paleopathology. (+info)
Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516): paleopathology of the medieval disabled and its relation to the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010.
BACKGROUND: At the start of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, a paleopathologic study of the physically disabled may yield information and insight on the prevalence of crippling disorders and attitudes towards the afflicted in the past compared to today. OBJECTIVE: To analyze "The procession of the Cripples," a representative drawing of 31 disabled individuals by Hieronymus Bosch in 1500. METHODS: Three specialists--a rheumatologist, an orthopedic surgeon and a neurologist--analyzed each case by problem-solving means and clinical reasoning in order to formulate a consensus on the most likely diagnosis. RESULTS: This iconographic study of cripples in the sixteenth century reveals that the most common crippling disorder was not a neural form of leprosy, but rather that other disorders were also prevalent, such as congenital malformation, dry gangrene due to ergotism, post-traumatic amputations, infectious diseases (Pott's, syphilis), and even simulators. The drawings show characteristic coping patterns and different kinds of crutches and aids. CONCLUSION: A correct clinical diagnosis can be reached through the collaboration of a rheumatologist, an orthopedist and a neurologist. The Bone and Joint Decade Project, calling for attention and education with respect to musculoskeletal disorders, should reduce the impact and burden of crippling diseases worldwide through early clinical diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (+info)
Osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastasis.
A patient with osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastases is discussed with attention to appropriate diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Multimodality treatment options using chemotherapy, orthopedic surgery and thoracic surgery are presented. Physical medicine and rehabilitation evaluation and treatment are included. Current research options are discussed. (+info)
Radioimmunotherapy for acute leukemia.
BACKGROUND: The use of monoclonal antibodies to deliver radioactive isotopes directly to tumor cells has become a promising strategy to enhance the antitumor effects of native monoclonal antibodies. In this article, we summarize the role of radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of leukemia. METHODS: The authors reviewed the published clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy in acute leukemia. RESULTS: Radioimmunoconjugates that emit beta-particles, such as 131I-anti-CD33, 90Y-anti-CD33, 131I-anti-CD45, and 188Re-anti-CD66c, deliver significant doses of radiation to the bone marrow and may be particularly effective when used as part of a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Radioimmunoconjugates that emit short-ranged alpha-particles, such as 213Bi-anti-CD33, are better suited for the treatment of low-volume or residual disease. CONCLUSIONS: Radiolabeled antibodies can be administered safely to patients with advanced leukemias and have significant antileukemic activity. Radiolabeled antibodies can potentially intensify the antileukemic effects of conditioning regimens when used in conjunction with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Whether or not radiolabeled antibodies improve the outcome of patients with leukemia remains to be demonstrated by randomized studies. (+info)