Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, a Japanese Kampo medicine, on tachycardia and central nervous system stimulation induced by theophylline in rats and mice.
Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (SRBT) on theophylline-induced tachycardia in anesthetized rats and theophylline-induced locomotion and convulsions in mice were examined. An intraduodenal administration of SRBT (1 g/kg) prevented theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced tachycardia in rats. SRBT also attenuated an increase in arterial blood pressure with a slow reduction in heart rate of rats treated with theophylline, with no influence on the plasma level of theophylline. However, SRBT did not change the beating rate of right atrium isolated from rats in the absence or presence of theophylline or isoproterenol. The locomotor activity of theophylline in mice was reduced by the treatment with SRBT. Furthermore, the latency of convulsions in mice induced by administration of theophylline at a higher dose (240 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by treatment with SRBT (1 g/kg, p.o.) and seven out of fifteen mice were saved from death due to convulsions. These results suggest that theophylline-induced tachycardia and central nervous stimulation are suppressed by SRBT and that SRBT may reduce the undesirable actions of theophylline on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. (+info)
The effect of acupuncture in chronic intractable epilepsy.
We examined the effect of acupuncture on epileptic seizures in humans in a controlled clinical setting. Treatment was administered by two Chinese professors of acupuncture. Effect was measured by change in seizure frequency. Twenty-nine patients with chronic intractable epilepsy completed the study. They were randomized in two groups; 15 were given classical acupuncture and 14 were given sham acupuncture. There was a reduction in seizure frequency in both groups, which did not reach a level of statistical significance. There was also an increase in the number of seizure-free weeks in both groups, which reached a level of significance in the sham group. Thus, we have not been able to prove a beneficial effect of acupuncture in chronic intractable epilepsy. (+info)
The basic clinical diagnostic framework synergized.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic framework that would help defining clinical problems by the expanded understanding with traditional Chinese medicine (C Med) and western medicine (W Med). METHODS: The basic attributes of diagnosis and the use of diagnostic techniques of W Med and C Med are reviewed. Some of the various diagnostic labels and their meanings are also preliminarily reviewed. A consolidatory approach is made to synergize the usefulness of the two disciplines based on the principles of the two schools. RESULTS: A synergized basic diagnostic framework is developed. The disease (the disease diagnosis, [symbol: see text]), the state of the inner core (the core diagnosis, [symbol: see text]) should be defined. The term "systemic clues" is used to describe the symptom complex and conglomerate evidence describing the transient or sustained reaction of the inner core to environment. This is an analytical summary of its pathophysiological changes in reaction to the environmental insults. CONCLUSIONS: The application and use of the framework are discussed and propositions are made. The synergized diagnostic platform represents a starting effort to form a unified basis to exchange clinical diagnosis between W Med and C Med. Such framework may facilitate looking for new treatment modalities and results can be compared across different centres. (+info)
An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire: a qualitative investigation.
This qualitative study explores oral health beliefs and attitudes among Chinese resident in West Yorkshire using six focus groups differentiated by age and gender. Focus group discussions took place in community settings led by trained Chinese facilitators. All groups believed that they were susceptible to dental disease, and that bleeding gums and total tooth loss were 'normal'; apart from the elderly, tooth loss was seen as undesirable. The elderly and adult groups believed in traditional remedies and claimed that preventive oral health measures were ineffective. These groups lacked faith in dentists, and for them cost, language difficulties and lack of awareness were the main reported barriers to accessing dental services. Traditional Chinese oral health beliefs remain influential for the elderly and adult UK Chinese. In contrast, teenagers thought that toothbrushing and sugar restriction would help to prevent dental diseases. The appropriateness of the focus group and interview methods for exploring oral health beliefs for the Chinese are discussed, as are implications of the reported intergenerational differences for oral health promotion strategy in the UK. (+info)
Positive and negative interference of the Chinese medicine Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Elimination of interference by using a monoclonal chemiluminescent digoxin assay or monitoring free digoxin concentration.
An over-the-counter Chinese medicine, Chan Su, is used as a cardiotonic agent. We demonstrated significant digoxin-like immunoreactivity in various organic and aqueous extracts of Chan Su. For example, when a 20-microL aliquot of an aqueous extract of Chan Su powder (1 mg/mL) was added to a 2-mL aliquot of a drug-free serum, the observed digoxin-like immunoreactivity was 2.76 ng/mL (3.53 nmol/L) digoxin equivalent using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The magnitude of interference was much lower (0.94 ng/mL [1.20 nmol/L]) with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), and no interference was observed with the chemiluminescent assay (CLIA). We also observed a significant positive interference of the extract with the serum digoxin measurement using FPIA. In contrast, we observed a negative interference (falsely lowered digoxin concentration) of the extract in the serum digoxin measurement with the MEIA. The extract had no effect on the serum digoxin measurement with the CLIA. By taking advantage of the high protein binding of Chan Su and only 25% protein binding of digoxin, we further demonstrated that positive interference of Chan Su in the FPIA and negative interference of Chan Su in the MEIA of digoxin could be eliminated by monitoring the free digoxin concentration. (+info)
Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats.
AIM: To study the effect of ligustrum fruit on spermatogenesis and blood gonadal hormones in diabetic rats. METHODS: Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Ligustrum fruit extract was given by gastric gavage at a dose of crude drug 30 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 110 days. The serum gonadadotropic hormones and testosterone were determined on d 60 and testicular histology examined on d 110. RESULTS: In the control diabetic rats, the seminiferous tubules were dilated and the spermatogenic cells irregularly arranged. Spermatogenesis was arrested with the number of spermatids highly reduced and spermatozoa not observed. In the treated rats, all types of spermatogenic cells were practically normal. The serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels were higher in the treated than in the control rats, but the difference was insignificant. CONCLUSION: In experimental diabetic rats, ligustrum fruit extract protects the damaging effect of experimental diabetes on spermatogenesis. (+info)
Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma.
Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye. Nutrients to increase glutathione levels and activity include lipoic acid, vitamins E and C, and selenium. Cataract patients also tend to be deficient in vitamin A and the carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. The B vitamin riboflavin appears to play an essential role as a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a co-factor for glutathione reductase activity. Other nutrients and botanicals, which may benefit cataract patients or help prevent cataracts, include pantethine, folic acid, melatonin, and bilberry. Diabetic cataracts are caused by an elevation of polyols within the lens of the eye catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. Flavonoids, particularly quercetin and its derivatives, are potent inhibitors of aldose reductase. Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in some but not all cases. Some patients with glaucoma have normal IOP but poor circulation, resulting in damage to the optic nerve. Faulty glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis or breakdown in the trabecular meshwork associated with aqueous outflow has also been implicated. Similar to patients with cataracts, those with glaucoma typically have compromised antioxidant defense systems as well. Nutrients that can impact GAGs such as vitamin C and glucosamine sulfate may hold promise for glaucoma treatment. Vitamin C in high doses has been found to lower IOP via its osmotic effect. Other nutrients holding some potential benefit for glaucoma include lipoic acid, vitamin B12, magnesium, and melatonin. Botanicals may offer some therapeutic potential. Ginkgo biloba increases circulation to the optic nerve; forskolin (an extract from Coleus forskohlii) has been used successfully as a topical agent to lower IOP; and intramuscular injections of Salvia miltiorrhiza have shown benefit in improving visual acuity and peripheral vision in people with glaucoma. (+info)
Determination of 14 chemical constituents in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huangqin-Tang by high performance liquid chromatography.
The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the identification and determination of baicalin (BG), wogonoside (WG), oroxylin-A-glucoside (OG), baicalein (B), wogonin (W), orxylin-A (O), paeoniflorin (PF), glycyrrhizic acid (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), liquiritin (LG), isoliquirition (ILG), liquiritigenin (L), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and ononin (ON) in Huangqin-Tang [Chinese characters: see text] was established. The samples were separated with a Wakosil C18 column (4.6 x 150 mm) by linear gradient elution using A (MeOH-HAC 100:1, v/v)-B (Water-HAC 100:1, v/v) (0 min, 30:70; 15 min, 40:60; 30 min, 60:40; 45 min, 80:20; 60 min, 100:0) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was by diode-array UV/Vis detector (DAD), and the wavelength was set at the range of 200-400 nm. Satisfactory results were obtained within 60 min for the simultaneous determination of the 14 constituents. The repeatability (RSD) of the method was generally less than 2% (n=5, interday and intraday). The recovery of BG was 96.9+/-1.71, WG was 98.9+/-2.99, PF was 99.7+/-0.52, LG was 95.3+/-2.67, GL was 96.7+/-3.44, and GA was 94.8+/-4.16, respectively. (+info)