Experiences and attitudes of residents and students influence voluntary service with homeless populations. (1/732)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of two programs at the University of Pittsburgh, one that requires and one that encourages volunteer activity. In the program that requires primary care interns to spend 15 hours in a homeless clinic, we measured volunteer service after the requirement was fulfilled. In the program that encourages and provides the structure for first- and second-year medical students to volunteer, we assessed correlates of volunteering. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: When primary care interns were required to spend time at homeless clinics, all (13/13) volunteered to work at the same clinic in subsequent years. Categorical interns without this requirement were less likely to volunteer (24/51; chi2 = 12.7, p >. 001). Medical students who volunteered were more likely to be first-year students, have previously volunteered in a similar setting, have positive attitudes toward caring for indigent patients, and have fewer factors that discouraged them from volunteering (p <. 01 for all) than students who did not volunteer. CONCLUSIONS: Volunteering with underserved communities during medical school and residency is influenced by previous experiences and, among medical students, year in school. Medical schools and residency programs have the opportunity to promote volunteerism and social responsibility through mentoring and curricular initiatives.  (+info)

Breast cancer screening in underserved women in the Bronx. (2/732)

This article reports the results of mammography screening among socioeconomically disadvantaged women in Bronx, NY using a federally funded low-cost or no-cost cancer screening service. The New York State Department of Health provided funds for the uninsured through the Bronx Breast Health Partnership. All women < or = 40 years underwent screening mammography using both a mobile van unit and hospital-based mammographic x-ray unit, both American College of Radiology (ACR) accredited. Return visits were coordinated by a follow-up clinic at Montefiore Medical Center using a patient navigator who acted as an advocate for patients with abnormal screening findings. The overall detection rate of 12.9 per 1000 women screened was significantly higher than the New York State detection rate of 6 per 1000 and 5.1 per 1000 nationally. Availability of a patient navigator was an essential factor in the effectiveness of the work-up of problem cases. Low-cost or no-cost breast cancer screening programs can improve the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and utilization of mammography among underserved and uninsured women who are least likely to be screened otherwise.  (+info)

Teleradiology: technology and practice. (3/732)

Teleradiology increases the ability of radiologists to provide service to remote and underserved locations as well as coverage at times when direct reading of images is not possible. Good practices for teleradiology are described in the American College of Radiology (ACR) teleradiology standard. Teleradiology equipment is converging with picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) equipment so that diagnostic interpretation from remote locations is possible. Image capture can be directly from digital modalities or by film scanner. Transmission speed is still an issue. High transmission speeds were difficult to achieve but recent improvements may increase speeds and decrease costs.  (+info)

HRSA's Models That Work Program: implications for improving access to primary health care. (4/732)

The main objective of the Models That Work Campaign (MTW) is improving access to health care for vulnerable and underserved populations. A collaboration between the Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) at the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and 39 cosponsors--among them national associations, state and federal agencies, community-based organizations, foundations, and businesses--this initiative gives recognition and visibility to innovative and effective service delivery models. Models are selected based on a set of criteria that includes delivery of high quality primary care services, community participation, integration of health and social services, quantifiable outcomes, and replicability. Winners of the competition are showcased nationally and hired to provide training to other communities, to document and publish their strategies, and to provide onsite technical assistance on request.  (+info)

International and US medical graduates in US cities. (5/732)

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the comparative distributions of postresident international medical graduates (IMGs) and US medical graduates (USMGs) in high and low poverty areas of US cities. Existing research has established that IMGs are more likely than USMGs to practice in urban areas, yet there is the question whether IMGs locate more frequently than USMGs in urban poverty areas. METHODS: Data from the 1997 AMA Physician Masterfile and 1990 US Census were merged to classify physicians' practices into low- and high-poverty areas in selected cities. RESULTS: In 14 cities with populations of 2.5 million or more, IMGs were located in a statistically significant disproportion in poverty areas of 7 cities. Of 36 cities with populations of 1,000,000 to 2,499,999, there were 5 cities that had significant IMG disproportions in poverty areas. Of a random sample of 27 cities with populations of 250,000 to 999,999, there were 2 cities that had significant IMG disproportions. Many cities in all three size categories had a large proportionate IMG complement of the total physician workforce located within high-poverty areas. CONCLUSIONS: IMGs were found in disproportionate numbers in poverty areas in a number of US cities, especially the very largest ones. These findings are discussed in light of the current debate about a physician surplus and initiatives to reduce the number of IMGs in residency training.  (+info)

Program for licensure for international medical graduates in British Columbia: 7 years' experience. (6/732)

British Columbia has funded a program for licensure for international medical graduates since 1992, providing 2 entry positions per year for postgraduate training. Each year 25-35 candidates are eligible for the program, 13-16 enter the evaluation process, 4 go on to a clinical evaluation and 2 are offered funding by the Ministry of Health. Other candidates may access community funding if they meet the requirements of the program. Twenty of 26 candidates have successfully completed the postgraduate training and achieved full licensure; 6 are still in training. In this article we describe the development of the program, the evaluation and selection process, characteristics of the candidates and the outcomes of the program.  (+info)

Information quality in a remote rural maternity unit in Ghana. (7/732)

The collection of accurate maternal outcome data enables causes of morbidity and mortality to be identified, which in turn permits interventions to be targeted appropriately. It also allows estimates to be made about the importance of various indicators in predicting birth outcome. These indicators can then be compared between health services, across time and against programme objectives, thus ensuring a management information system that informs policy and provides for real change. A review was done of data collection at the antenatal clinic and maternity ward in a remote rural hospital in northern Ghana. The data collected came from maternity ward records and participant observation, and they highlight deficiencies in the record management procedures. It is argued that exhorting staff to greater accuracy, although obvious, may not be the only solution, because of the structural impediments that often give an illusion of accuracy. The best data need to be collected within the constraints of the equipment and the people. Furthermore, to make the task more meaningful, regular feedback needs to be provided so that the process of record keeping is relevant to those who do it. Ministries of health need to conduct regular audits, like this microanalysis, so that policies are not based on data that are analyzed under a presumption of accuracy.  (+info)

Contributions of general internal medicine teaching units: a national survey. (8/732)

OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe general internal medicine teaching units and their educational activities. DESIGN: A cross-sectional mailed survey of heads of general internal medicine teaching units affiliated with U.S. internal medicine training programs who responded between December 1996 and December 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Responses were received from 249 (61%) of 409 eligible programs. Responding and nonresponding programs were similar in terms of university affiliation, geographic region, and size of residency program. Fifty percent of faculty received no funding from teaching units, 37% received full-time (50% or more time), and 13% received part-time (under 50% time) funding from units. Only 23% of faculty were primarily located at universities or medical schools. The majority of faculty were classified as clinicians (15% or less time spent in teaching) or clinician-educators (more than 15% time spent in teaching), and few were clinician-researchers (30% or more time spent in research). Thirty-six percent of faculty were internal medicine subspecialists. All units were involved in training internal medicine residents and medical students, and 21% trained fellows of various types. Half of the units had teaching clinics located in underserved areas, and one fourth had teaching clinics serving more than 50% managed care patients. Heads of teaching units reported that 54% of recent graduating residents chose careers in general internal medicine. CONCLUSIONS: General internal medicine teaching units surveyed contributed substantial faculty effort, much of it unfunded and located off-campus, to training medical students, residents, and fellows. A majority of their graduating residents chose generalist careers.  (+info)