Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 43 patients from the Nebraska Lymphoma Study Group.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a more aggressive course than other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with CD20-positive DLBL who presented with a mediastinal mass measuring at least 5.0 cm and were treated with curative intent were identified. A control group of 352 patients with nonmediastinal DLBL was selected for comparison. RESULTS: The 43 patients with PMLBL had a male to female ratio of 20:23 and a median age of 42 years. Stage I/II disease was present in 58% of the patients, with only 9% having bone marrow involvement. A complete remission was achieved in 63% of the patients, and the 5-year overall and failure-free survivals were 46% and 38%, respectively. Among the clinical variables, an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, a low performance score, more than one extranodal site, and an intermediate or high International Prognostic Index score were predictive of poor survival. When compared with the DLBL group, a younger median age was the only clinical feature that was significantly different in the PMLBL group. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of PMLBL do not appear to be significantly different from those of nonmediastinal DLBL. Although the younger age of onset, slight female predominance, mediastinal location, and size of the mass may justify the recognition of PMLBL as a clinical syndrome, additional evidence is needed to define it as a distinct disease entity. (+info)
Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy.
A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin. (+info)
Diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal masses in patients with intrapulmonary lesions and nondiagnostic bronchoscopy.
Several procedures are available for the cytopathological diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with mediastinal mass lesions/lymph node enlargement. All patients had intrapulmonary lesions on chest X ray and/or CT scan, and inconclusive findings by endobronchial forceps biopsy and/or brush cytology. EUS-guided FNA was performed in 16 patients using a modified oblique forward-viewing gastroscope with an electronic multielement curved linear ultrasound transducer. After the region of interest was localized, a 22-gauge Vilmann-Hancke needle was introduced via the 2-mm biopsy channel. The cytological diagnosis of EUS-guided FNA was conclusive for cancer in 9 patients and in the other 7 patients the aspirated samples revealed a benign lesion. In 10 patients the final diagnosis was cancer, thus EUS-guided FNA was diagnostic for malignancy in all but 1 of the lesions (sensitivity 90.0%). In 1 patient epitheloid cell granuloma was detected by cytological examination of the FNA. Following tuberculostatic treatment the lesions disappeared completely on CT scan and EUS. The overall accuracy in this study amounted to 93.7%. From this and other studies discussed, it is assumed that the procedure is an accurate and safe technique to examine nodular lesions suggestive of metastatic lymph node involvement. (+info)
Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients.
The purpose of this study was to determine the demographics, histology, methods of treatment, and survival in primary mediastinal malignancies. We did a retrospective review of the statewide New Mexico Tumor Registry for all malignant tumors treated between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 1995. Benign tumors and cysts of the mediastinum were excluded. Two hundred nineteen patients were identified from a total of 110,284 patients with primary malignancies: 55% of tumors were lymphomas, 16% malignant germ cell tumors, 14% malignant thymomas, 5% sarcomas, 3% malignant neurogenic tumors, and 7% other tumors. There were significant differences in gender between histologies (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of germ cell tumors occurred in males, 66% of neurogenic tumors were in females; other tumors occurred in males in 58% of cases. There were also significant differences in ages by histology (P < 0.001). Neurogenic tumors were most common in the first decade, lymphomas and germ cell tumors in the second to fourth decades, and lymphomas and thymomas in patients in their fifth decades and beyond. Stage at presentation (P = 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) also differed significantly between histologic groups. Five-year survival was 54% for lymphomas, 51% for malignant germ cell tumors, 49% for malignant thymomas, 33% for sarcomas, 56% for neurogenic tumors, and 51% overall. These survival rates were not statistically different (P > 0.50). Lymphomas, malignant germ cell tumors, and thymomas were the most frequently encountered malignant primary mediastinal neoplasms in this contemporary series of patients. Demographics, stage at presentation, and treatment modality varied significantly by histology. Despite these differences, overall five-year survival was not statistically different. (+info)
Thymic carcinoma of the thymic hormone secretory type in a cow.
An 8-year-old Holstein cow had tumor nodules and enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, and metastatic tumor masses in the pelvic cavity. The neoplastic cells were characterized by squamous features and intracytoplasmic vacuoles carrying microvilli, some of which contained periodic acid Schiff-positive globular cores, but tubular structures or goblet cells were absent. Many neoplastic cells stained positively for keratin, and occasional cells were positive for thymosin. The presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm was confirmed by electron microscopy. This neoplasm was considered to be of thymic hormone-secreting epithelial cell origin. (+info)
Core needle biopsy is effective in the initial diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: With the development and refinement of guidance modalities for percutaneous biopsies, many investigators have reported studies supporting the role of guided core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. The aims of this report are to evaluate the efficacy of findings at core needle biopsy of mediastinal masses on patient care and define the key determinants of clinical success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluoroscopy-guided (in 75 patients) and computed tomography-guided (in 8 patients) core needle biopsies were performed in 83 patients with mediastinal lymphoma: all but one of the patients were at first diagnosis. All the biopsies were performed using a Menghini needle (from 1.2 mm to 1.8 mm). In the vast majority of cases the 1.8 mm gauge was employed. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity for the diagnosis of lymphoma was 81% (67/83 cases). In the remaining 16 patients the lymphoma diagnosis was reached either by mediastinoscopy (11 cases) or anterior mediastinotomy (3 cases) or core needle biopsy of the lung (1 case); one patient was treated directly after the needle biopsy had been unsuccessful because he needed rapid therapy. In 77/82 (93%) patients it was possible to assess the specific histotype. There was no operative mortality; all the biopsies were performed on an outpatient basis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that core needle biopsy should be considered as an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of patients with mediastinal lymphoma with the possibility of determining the tumor subtype and subsequent specific treatment. (+info)
Diagnostic role of gallium scanning in the management of lymphoma with mediastinal involvement.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Therapy of both Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with mediastinal presentation at the time of diagnosis is frequently followed by radiological detection of residual masses. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is generally unable to detect the differences between tumor tissue and fibrosis. Gallium-67-citrate single photon emission ((67)GaSPECT) can potentially differentiate residual active tumor tissue from fibrosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with HD or aggressive NHL presenting mediastinal involvement (64% with a bulky mass) were studied with CT and (67)GaSPECT at the end of combined modality therapy (chemo- and radiation therapy). RESULTS: After treatment, 3/3 (100%) patients with positive (67)GaSPECT and negative CT scan relapsed while only 1/18 (6%) patients with both negative (67)GaSPECT and CT scan did so. At the same time, 54 patients had a positive restaging CT scan (abnormal mass < 10% of size of initial mass). Of these patients, 13 had a positive (67)GaSPECT, 10 of whom (77%) relapsed; 41 had a negative (67)GaSPECT of whom 5 (12%) relapsed. The 4-year actuarial relapse-free survival rate was 90% for those with negative scans compared with 23% for gallium-positive patients (p < 0.000000). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In lymphoma patients with mediastinal involvement, (67)GaSPECT should be considered, at least in patients who are CT positive, the imaging technique of choice for monitoring and differentiating the nature of any residual masses. (+info)
Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a study of 29 cases.
Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) represent a particular entity among intrathoracic neoplasms. Twenty-nine patients with primary mediastinal aggressive NHL diagnosed and treated in the author's institution were studied. According to the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, there were 15 diffuse large B-cell, eight T-lymphoblastic, four anaplastic, one large T-cell and one Burkitt's lymphomas. The study group consisted of 14 females and 15 males, with a mean age of 38 yrs. Symptoms arose from an aggressive anterior mediastinal mass, with a high prevalence of superior vena caval syndrome, pleural, and pericardial effusions. At the time of diagnosis, disease was confined to supradiaphragmatic areas in 24 patients, while subdiaphragmatic nodal or extranodal involvement was also present in five. All patients received a combination of aggressive chemotherapy regimens, mainly according to the French protocols for the treatment of NHL. A chest radiograph response of <50% after the first course of chemotherapy and failure to achieve a complete remission after the first line of chemotherapy were significantly associated with unfavourable prognosis. Overall 5-yr and 9-yr survival rates were 55 and 48%, respectively. Patients properly diagnosed and treated with a combined modality of chemotherapy can experience prolonged survival. (+info)