Insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and gonadotropins in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and serum of nutrient-restricted ewes.
Body condition scores (BCS) of ovariectomized estradiol-treated ewes were controlled to examine effects of suboptimum BCS on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and LH in the anterior pituitary gland, hypophyseal stalk-median eminence (SME), and circulation. Serum LH increased in ewes with BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) > 3 (HIGH-BCS), but not in ewes with BCS +info)
The influence of superovulation preparations on the levels of catecholamines in eminentia mediana, the pituitary and pineal gland of the sheep.
The influence of hormonal superovulation preparations of FSH (450 IU) or PMSG (1500 IU), on the levels of catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) was studied in the oestrus period using radioenzymatic methods. The administration of FSH caused a significant increase in the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) in eminentia mediana (EM) of sheep (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The pituitary gland exhibited an increase in the level of norepinephrine after administration PMSG while no marked changes were recorded for epinephrine and dopamine (DA). The administration of FSH affected the increase in pituitary epinephrine (p<0.01). The hormonal stimulation by FSH resulted in a marked decrease of dopamine (p<0.05) as well as in a significant increase of norepinephrine (p<0.05) and epinephrine (p<0.05) in the epiphysis. The comparison of the effect of hormonal preparations on the changes in catecholamine levels showed that the effect of FSH was observed mostly in eminentia mediana and the pituitary gland while that of PMSG was recorded in the epiphysis. (+info)
Implication of D2-like dopaminergic receptors in the median eminence during the establishment of long-day inhibition of LH secretion in the ewe.
In ewes, photoperiod modulates LH release and dopaminergic terminals in the median eminence (ME) have a critical role in the establishment of long-day inhibition of LH secretion. This study was undertaken to determine the type of dopaminergic receptors, D1-like or D2-like, that mediate the action of dopamine on LH secretion at the ME level in this situation. This was assessed, in ovariectomized and estradiol-treated ewes, with the use of reverse microdialysis in the ME in three experiments: first, when LH secretion was stimulated by short days, by determining the response to three doses (0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/ml) of a D1-like (SKF38393) and a D2-like (quinpirole) agonist; secondly, during early long-day inhibition of LH secretion, by determining the ability of SKF38393 and quinpirole (1 mg/ml) to mimic the inhibitory effects of dopamine, after a blockade of its synthesis with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (alphaMPT; 2 mg/ml); and thirdly, during early long-day inhibition of LH secretion, by determining the response to three doses (0.009, 0.09 or 0.9 mg/ml) of a D1-like (SCH23390) and a D2-like (sulpiride) antagonist. In none of the conditions was effect of the D1-like analogs on LH secretion found, compared with the control treatments. In contrast, the D2-like analogs caused changes in LH secretion. First, with short days, quinpirole in the highest dose significantly reduced mean LH concentration (P<0.05) and LH pulse frequency (P<0.01). Secondly, with long days, addition of quinpirole to alphaMPT caused a significant decrease in LH secretion relative to alphaMPT alone (P<0.05). Thirdly, with long days, sulpiride at the highest dose significantly increased mean LH concentration (during the first 3 h of treatment, P<0.05) and LH pulse frequency (P<0.05). Prolactin secretion was also determined in these experiments, and D2-like agonist and antagonist caused an inhibition and a stimulation of prolactin secretion, respectively. These results demonstrate that, in the ME, inhibitory action of dopamine on LH secretion, critical for the initiation of long-day-induced inhibition, is mediated by D2-like, not D1-like, dopaminergic receptors. (+info)
MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.
Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence) on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels. (+info)
Antiprogestins RU486 and ZK299 suppress basal and LHRH-stimulated FSH and LH secretion at pituitary level in the rat in an oestrous cycle stage-dependent manner.
We have previously shown that administration of antiprogestin (AP) type II RU486 to ovariectomized (OVX) rats on the morning of pro-oestrus decreases the magnitude of preovulatory gonadotrophin surge. This suggests that the effect of RU486 on LHRH-dependent gonadotrophin release may be independent of its ability to block progesterone actions. The aim of the present research was to study the possible site of RU486 action and to determine whether the gonadotrophin suppressive effect of APs RU486 and ZK299 is dependent on the oestrogen background. Intact or OVX rats in the morning of pro-oestrus were injected s.c. with 4 mg of RU486 or ZK299 (AP type I) at 0900 h on pro-oestrus. At 1830 h, serum concentration of FSH and LH and median eminence (ME) content of LHRH were determined. In the second experiment, the effect of RU486 and ZK299 on pituitary responsiveness to LHRH (100 ng, i.p.) and ME content of LHRH at 1830 h pentobarbital-blocked intact or OVX rats was evaluated. In the last study, the anterior pituitary release of FSH and LH from pro-oestrus or metoestrus donors incubated with or without LHRH (1, 10 or 100 nM) in the presence or absence of APs (20 nM) was evaluated. Both APs reduced serum FSH and LH levels at 1830 h on pro-oestrus in intact and OVX rats. The suppressive effect on gonadotrophin release brought about by AP treatment was also evidenced in PB-blocked intact and OVX rats. This suggested that the inhibitory effect of APs occurred, at least in part, at pituitary level. Furthermore, in the absence of the natural ligand, APs significantly reduced basal and LHRH-stimulated FSH and LH release from pro-oestrous but not from metoestrus pituitaries. In conclusion, these experiments have shown, both 'in vivo' and 'in vitro', that APs RU486 and ZK299 have suppressive effects at pituitary level on basal and LHRH-stimulated FSH and LH secretion, regardless of their antiprogestagenic activity, in pro-oestrus but not in metoestrus. (+info)
Comparison of pancreatic and hypophysiotropic TRH systems.
The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a molecule with widespread distribution through many organ systems. The function of TRH is probably not identical in each system so that TRH synthesis and secretion may be unique for each system under specific experimental conditions. The present study was designed to explore the common and diverse features of the regulation of TRH encoded with the same gene in two different organs: hypophysiotropic hypothalamus and pancreatic islets. During in vitro incubation, the TRH content in hypothalamic structures remained stable while that in isolated pancreatic islets increased sharply. In contrast to the pancreatic islets, exposure to different concentrations of D-glucose did not affect TRH release from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus or median eminence. This divergence in the regulation of the hypophysiotropic and pancreatic TRH systems may be related to differences in the role of TRH produced in these tissues. (+info)
Localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat hypothalamus using radioimmunoassay.
Radioimmunoassays for LH-RH were performed on frozen rat brain sections cut serially in coronal, parasagittal and horizontal planes. In some of the assays, samples were pooled from corresponding areas in different animals. A clear pattern of distribution of LH-RH rich regions emerged. Two prominent components - a caudal high curve and a rostral smaller hump - were observed, and their variable characteristics discussed. The high curve represents the arcuate-medium eminence (ME) region. Our data suggest that this region is not homogeneous, and three different subdivisions of this arcuate-ME region can be distinguished on the basis of LH-RH content. High values were obtained consistently in the arcuate-ME region, except for females in the late afternoon of dioestrus day 2, at which stage the levels in this region dropped until they were little more than base line. The rostral hump of high LH-RH activity varies both in position and amplitude. These variations are associated with (1) the sex of the animal and (2) the stage of the female cycle. In males this hump appeared in the region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, while in dioestrous females it appeared in the medial preoptic area, rostral to the male location. Some changes in LH-RH levels are thought to be related to the stage in the female sex cycle. During the afternoon of dioestrus, the caudal high curve representing the arcuate-ME region shrank, whereas the rostral smaller hump (preoptic region) showed much higher levels. Some feed-back take-off may occur from the LH-RH released by the arcuate-ME region. Instead of synthesizing its own LH-RH, the preoptic area may concentrate some of the LH-RH released from the arcuate-ME region, thereafter initiating sexual behaviour as suggested by Moss & McCann (1973). (+info)
Response of serum LH, FSH and prolactin to injection of synthetic LH-RH into rat anterior pituitary.
Changes in serum LH, FSH and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay following injection of synthetic LH-RH into the anterior pituitary and median eminence of rats. The time course of serum levels of LH and FSH after injection of synthetic LH-RH into the pituitary showed a peak at 15 min. The synthetic LH-RH had a more marked releasing effect on LH than on FSH. After injection of 20 ng into the pituitary, the serum LH rose to about 10.7 times the control level but the serum FSH only to about 1.8 times. A significant rise of serum LH over the control level was noted after injection of more than 0.2 ng of synthetic LH-RH, while that of serum FSH was after injection of more than 2 ng. An injection of 2 ng of synthetic LH-RH into the pituitary following 0.1 mug of estradiol benzoate resulted in a fall of serum LH and FSH levels, and a rise of serum prolactin level. An injection of 2 ng of synthetic LH-RH into the median eminence resulted in a tendency towards slight decrease in serum LH and FSH. No significant response of serum prolactin to synthetic LH-RH was noted. (+info)