Effect of mebendazole and praziquantel on glucosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall harbored in mice.
AIM: To study effects of antihydatid drugs on glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall. METHODS: Mice infected with the parasite for 8-10 months were treated i.g. with mebendazole (Meb) or praziquantel (Pra). The activities of GPI and GAPDH in the cysts were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. RESULTS: GPI activity in the cyst wall was 197 +/- 103 U, while that of GAPDH was 25 +/- 13 U. When infected mice were treated i.g. with Meb 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effect on the GAPDH activity in the cyst was found. In mice treated i.g. with praziquantel (Pra) 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d, the GAPDH activity in the cyst wall was inhibited by 26.5%. As to GPI activity only the group treated i.g. with Meb 25 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d showed 33.2% inhibition of the enzyme in the collapsed cyst wall. CONCLUSION: GPI and GAPDH are not the major targets attacked by the antihydatid drug. (+info)
A controlled evaluation of two school-based anthelminthic chemotherapy regimens on intensity of intestinal helminth infections.
BACKGROUND: School-based deworming programmes have been promoted as a cost-effective strategy for control of nematode infection in developing countries. While numerous efficacy studies have been conducted, there is little information on actual programme effectiveness in areas of intense transmission. METHODS: A randomized trial of a school-based deworming programme was conducted in 12 primary schools on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Four schools each were randomized to control, twice a year deworming with single dose mebendazole or three times a year deworming. Baseline and 12-month follow-up data on helminth infection using the Kato-Katz technique, demographic information and nutritional status were collected on 3028 children from March 1994 to May 1995. RESULTS: Intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces (epg) declined significantly for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections in both treatment groups. A. lumbricoides infection intensity declined 63.1% and 96.7% in the twice and three times per year treatment groups compared to the controls. T. trichiura infection intensity declined 40.4% and 75.9% respectively and hookworm intensity declined 35.3% and 57.2% respectively compared to control schools. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that school-based programmes can be a cost-effective approach for controlling the intensity of intestinal helminth infection even in environments where transmission is high. (+info)
Long-term evaluation of patients with hydatidosis treated with benzimidazole carbamates.
Four hundred forty-eight patients with 929 Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts received 3- to 6-month continuous cycles of mebendazole or albendazole treatment and underwent prolonged follow-up by clinical visits and imaging studies (range, 1-14 years) to assess the long-term outcome of treatment. Degenerative changes and relapse were assessed by imaging techniques. At the end of therapy, 74.1% of the hydatid cysts showed degenerative changes. These were more frequent in albendazole-treated than in mebendazole-treated cysts (82.2% vs. 56.1%; P < .001). During long-term follow-up, 104 cysts (22%) had degenerative changes that progressed, whereas 163 cysts (approximately 25%) relapsed. The percentages of relapses in the two drug-treated groups were almost the same. Relapses occurred more frequently in type II cysts of the liver. Cysts recurred most often (78.5%; P < .001) within the first 2 years after treatment ended. Further chemotherapy cycles induced degenerative changes in >90% of relapsed cysts without inducing more frequent or more severe side effects than those observed during the initial cycles. (+info)
Efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents on the growth of Spironucleus vortens, an intestinal parasite of the freshwater angelfish.
Seven chemotherapeutic agents (dimetridazole, metronidazole, pyrimethamine, albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and magnesium sulfate) were examined for growth inhibition on the cultivation of Spironucleus vortens. Dimetridazole and metronidazole were effective in inhibiting the parasite's growth. At concentrations of 1 microgram ml-1 or higher, both dramatically decreased numbers of parasites. At 24 h exposure, 33% of parasites were inhibited when exposed to dimetridazole or metronidazole at concentrations of 2 and 4 micrograms ml-1, respectively. Dimetridazole at 4 micrograms ml-1 or higher concentrations decreased the number of organisms to 50% or less after 48 h exposure. During the same period of time, the numbers of parasites decreased to 50% or less when exposed to metronidazole at 6 micrograms ml-1 or higher. Pyrimethamine at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms ml-1 was not effective in inhibiting the parasite's growth. Albendazole and fenbendazole at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 microgram ml-1 were similar in inhibiting the growth of the organism. Both compounds suppressed parasite growth at concentrations of 1.0 microgram ml-1 or higher after 24 h exposure. Mebendazole inhibited the parasite's growth at concentrations of 0.5 microgram ml-1 or higher. At 72 h exposure, 45 to 50% of the parasites were inhibited when exposed to mebendazole at concentrations higher than 0.5 microgram ml-1. Magnesium sulfate at concentrations of 70 mg ml-1 or higher also suppressed the growth of parasites after 24 h exposure. These results indicate that dimetridazole, metronidazole and mebendazole are the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in vitro at inhibiting the growth of S. vortens. (+info)
A case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman.
This is a case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman complaining of a sudden onset of nasal side field defect of the right eye. The patient had been suffering from uveitis for ten months. Fundoscopic examination of the right eye showed a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Furthermore, a retinochoroidal granulomatous lesion was observed nearby the tear site. Scleral buckling, cryotherapy, and gas injection(SF6, pure gas, 0.7 cc) were conducted. Mebendazole was prescribed for one month at 25 mg/kg per body weight daily. Even though the interventions resulted in the recovery of the field defect, anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE titer levels did not decrease when checked three months after the treatment ended. This is the first confirmed serological ocular toxocariasis case in Korea. Uveitis may be a clinical presentation prior to retinal detachment of a person with toxocariasis. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of UMF-078, a candidate antifilarial drug, in infected dogs.
The pharmacokinetics of the filaricidal benzimidazole compounds UMF-078 and UMF-289 were evaluated in beagle dogs experimentally infected with Brugia pahangi. Twenty-four infected microfilaremic beagles were selected and randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups of 6 dogs each: oral (PO) UMF-078, PO UMF-289 (the HCl salt form of UMF-078), intramuscular (IM) UMF-078, and untreated controls. Equivalent doses of 50 mg/kg of the free base were given twice a day for 3 days to the 3 groups of treated dogs. Oral absorption is rapid compared with IM dosing; the absorption half-life (K01-HL) for the IM treatment is approximately 14 hr compared with 1 and 2 hr for the PO regimen of salt and free base forms, respectively. The elimination half-lives (K10-HL) for the PO regimens are 13 and 15 hr for the salt and free base forms, respectively. Because of sustained absorption following IM dosing, the K10-HL is prolonged. In contrast to oral administration, IM dosing of UMF-078 provides sustained, relatively low plasma drug levels, with good tolerance and efficacy. (+info)
Epidemiology and control of enterobiasis in a developmental center.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if enterobiasis could be controlled in a developmental center. DESIGN: Population-based study. Annual screening of all residents by perianal swabs for enterobiasis and on admission or discharge. Treatment of infected residents and their contacts with mebendazole, 100 mg orally, with two doses given 14 days apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of residents with enterobiasis and the cost of the program. RESULTS: The prevalence of enterobiasis fell rapidly and progressively, from 21% before mass medication to 1% after 3 years. CONCLUSION: Mass medication of residents with enterobiasis and their contacts was beneficial, harmless, and cost effective. (+info)
Blinded, placebo-controlled trial of antiparasitic drugs for trichinosis myositis.
There is no consensus on the benefits of treatment with any specific anthelminthic compound on muscle-stage trichinosis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison was done of 3 antiparasitic drugs during an outbreak of trichinosis in Chiangrai Province, northern Thailand. Forty-six adults were randomized to receive 10 days of oral treatment with mebendazole (200 mg twice a day), thiabendazole (25 mg/kg twice a day), fluconazole (400 mg initially, then 200 mg daily), or placebo. All patients received treatment to eradicate adult intestinal worms. Trichinella spiralis infection was proved parasitologically in 19 (41%) of 46 patient and by serodiagnosis in all cases. Significantly more patients improved after treatment with mebendazole (12/12) and thiabendazole (7/7) than after treatment with placebo (6/12; P<.05) or fluconazole (6/12). Muscle tenderness resolved in more patients treated with thiabendazole and mebendazole than in those treated with placebo (P<.05). However, 30% of volunteers could not tolerate the side effects of thiabendazole. In summary, Trichinella myositis responds to thiabendazole and to mebendazole. (+info)