Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.
This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. (+info)
Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a meat packing plant.
OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a modern meat packing plant. The secondary objective was to explore the relation between ethnicity and CTS. METHODS: Six hundred and sixty five workers were interviewed and examined to find the prevalence of CTS. Subsequently, 421 workers without CTS were followed up and examined at a median interval of 253 days; of those, 333 remained without CTS and were again examined at a median interval of 148 days. RESULTS: The prevalence and incidence of CTS was 21% and 11/100 person-years, respectively. The incidence for Asian mixed, white, and other ethnicities was 12.0, 12.2, and 7.2 cases/100 person-years, respectively. The observed incidence for men and women was 9.7 and 18.4 cases/100 person-years, respectively. This difference was not quite significant (p = 0.068) with an estimated relative risk (women v men) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9 to 3.8). The interaction between sex and use of tools was significant (p = 0.04), however, although the relative risk for CTS in women who used tools was 4.2 the numbers were small and not significant. The relative risk for men who used tools was 0.64 and not significant. The percentage of incident cases with comorbid disease was only 6.3% (3/47). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were higher than in the general population. However, the prevalence of CTS in this modern, mechanised plant was not significantly different from that reported in older plants. No relation was found between ethnicity, age, body mass index, and CTS for either prevalence or incidence. Comorbid disease among the cases of CTS is significantly less than that found in other industry. (+info)
Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cull dairy cows in New York state and comparison of culture methods used during preharvest food safety investigations.
A number of protocols for the cultural detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in clinical fecal specimens have been proposed. In the present study direct plating of cattle feces was compared to three different broth enrichment protocols, i.e., a protocol with modified E. coli broth with novobiocin, a protocol with Trypticase soy broth with cefixime and vancomycin, and a protocol with Gram-Negative Broth with novobiocin, for their relative abilities to detect E. coli O157:H7 in feces. In all enrichment protocols, dilutions of the enrichment broths onto 150-mm sorbitol-MacConkey agar plates to which cefixime and tellurite were added were used along with reading of agar plates at both 24 and 48 h. Fecal samples came from a preharvest food safety project in which feces from New York cull dairy cattle from a northeastern packing plant along with experimentally inoculated adult dairy cow feces were tested. The performances of the broth enrichments were comparable to each other, but the broth enrichments were superior to direct plating in their ability to detect E. coli O157:H7. Regardless of the culture protocol used, recovery of E. coli O157:H7 is more likely from fresh fecal specimens than from frozen samples. An overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding by New York cull dairy cattle of 1.3% was found in specimens just before processing at the packing plant. (+info)
The isolation of salmonellas from British pork sausages and sausage meat.
Between 1969 and 1974, 1467 packets (3309 samples) of pork sausages and sausage meat produced by two large and two medium sized manufacturers and several local butchers were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these, 435 packets (786 samples) were found to contain salmonellas, but there was a wide variation in the isolation rates according to the producer. The salmonella incidence in samples from several small and two medium sized producers was low (0-11%) while the results from the two large producers investigated showed a striking difference, the rate of salmonella contamination in the product of one was low (about 2%) and in that of the other consistently high (40-60%). A comparison of liquid enrichment media, incubation temperatures and selective agar media was also carried out to determine the most efficient combination for the isolation of salmonellas from minced meat products. The results showed that (a) incubation of enrichment cultures at 43 degrees C. yielded a consistently greater number of salmonella isolations that at 37 degrees C., regardless of plating medium, (b) tetrathionate broth A (Rolfe) was superior to selenite broth as en enrichment medium at both 37 and 43 degrees C. and (c) brilliant green agar gave better results than deoxycholate citrate sucrose agar and bismuth sulphite agar as a selective medium. (+info)
Carboxyhaemoglobin levels of smokers and non-smokers working in the City of London.
The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels of two groups of workers in the City of London were determined. The mean COHb in smokers (5-8%) was significantly greater than that of the non-smoking group (1-3%). In general, cigarette consumption could be directly related to the COHb level but there was considerable individual variation. The mean COHb level of manual workers was significantly lower than that of sedentary workers even though the former group tended to smoke more heavily. (+info)
Influence of the natural microbial flora on the acid tolerance response of Listeria monocytogenes in a model system of fresh meat decontamination fluids.
Depending on its composition and metabolic activity, the natural flora that may be established in a meat plant environment can affect the survival, growth, and acid tolerance response (ATR) of bacterial pathogens present in the same niche. To investigate this hypothesis, changes in populations and ATR of inoculated (10(5) CFU/ml) Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated at 35 degrees C in water (10 or 85 degrees C) or acidic (2% lactic or acetic acid) washings of beef with or without prior filter sterilization. The model experiments were performed at 35 degrees C rather than lower (8.0 log CFU/ml) by day 1. The pH of inoculated water washings decreased or increased depending on absence or presence of natural flora, respectively. These microbial and pH changes modulated the ATR of L. monocytogenes at 35 degrees C. In filter-sterilized water washings, inoculated L. monocytogenes increased its ATR by at least 1.0 log CFU/ml from days 1 to 8, while in unfiltered water washings the pathogen was acid tolerant at day 1 (0.3 to 1.4 log CFU/ml reduction) and became acid sensitive (3.0 to >5.0 log CFU/ml reduction) at day 8. These results suggest that the predominant gram-negative flora of an aerobic fresh meat plant environment may sensitize bacterial pathogens to acid. (+info)
Genotypic analyses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157 nonmotile isolates recovered from beef cattle and carcasses at processing plants in the Midwestern states of the United States.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157 nonmotile isolates (E. coli O157) previously were recovered from feces, hides, and carcasses at four large Midwestern beef processing plants (R. O. Elder, J. E. Keen, G. R. Siragusa, G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher, M. Koohmaraie, and W. W. Laegreid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2999-3003, 2000). The study implied relationships between cattle infection and carcass contamination within single-source lots as well as between preevisceration and postprocessing carcass contamination, based on prevalence. These relationships now have been verified based on identification of isolates by genomic fingerprinting. E. coli O157 isolates from all positive samples were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA after digestion with XbaI. Seventy-seven individual subtypes (fingerprint patterns) grouping into 47 types were discerned among 343 isolates. Comparison of the fingerprint patterns revealed three clusters of isolates, two of which were closely related to each other. Remarkably, isolates carrying both Shiga toxin genes and nonmotile isolates largely fell into specific clusters. Within lots analyzed, 68.2% of the postharvest (carcass) isolates matched preharvest (animal) isolates. For individual carcasses, 65.3 and 66.7% of the isolates recovered postevisceration and in the cooler, respectively, matched those recovered preevisceration. Multiple isolates were analyzed from some carcass samples and were found to include strains with different genotypes. This study suggests that most E. coli O157 carcass contamination originates from animals within the same lot and not from cross-contamination between lots. In addition, the data demonstrate that most carcass contamination occurs very early during processing. (+info)
Use of a marker organism to model the spread of central nervous system tissue in cattle and the abattoir environment during commercial stunning and carcass dressing.
Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. (+info)