Targeting myeloid leukemia with a DT(390)-mIL-3 fusion immunotoxin: ex vivo and in vivo studies in mice.
The IL-3 receptor was expressed on a high frequency of myeloid leukemia cells and also on hematopoietic and vascular cells. We previously showed that a recombinant IL-3 fusion immunotoxin (DT(390)IL-3) expressed by splicing the murine IL-3 gene to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT(390)) gene selectively killed IL-3R(+) expressing cells and was not uniformly toxic to uncommitted BM progenitor cells (Chan,C.-H., Blazar,B.R., Greenfield,L., Kreitman,R.J. and Vallera,D.A., 1996, Blood, 88, 1445-1456). Thus, we explored the feasibility of using DT(390)IL-3 as an anti-leukemia agent. DT(390)IL-3 was toxic when administered to mice at doses as low as 0.1 microg/day. The dose limiting toxicity appeared to be related to platelet and bleeding effects of the fusion toxin. Because of these effects, DT(390)IL-3 was studied ex vivo as a means of purging contaminating leukemia cells from BM grafts in a murine autologous BM transplantation. In this setting, as few as 1000 IL-3R-expressing, bcr/abl transformed myeloid 32Dp210 leukemia cells were lethal. An optimal purging interval of 10 nM/l for 8 h eliminated leukemia cells from 32Dp210/BM mixtures given to lethally irradiated (8 Gy) C3H/HeJ syngeneic mice. Mice given treated grafts containing BM and a lethal dose of 32Dp210 cells survived over 100 days while mice given untreated grafts did not survive (P < 0.00001). DT(390)IL-3 may prove highly useful for ex vivo purging of lethal malignant leukemia cells from autologous BM grafts. (+info)
Evaluation of rodent-only toxicology for early clinical trials with novel cancer therapeutics.
Preclinical toxicology studies are performed prior to phase I trials with novel cancer therapeutics to identify a safe clinical starting dose and potential human toxicities. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of rodent-only toxicology studies to identify a safe phase I trial starting dose. In addition, the ability of murine studies to predict the quantitative and qualitative human toxicology of cancer therapeutics was studied. Data for 25 cancer drugs were collated for which the preclinical and clinical routes and schedules of administration were either the same (22/25), or closely matched. The maximum tolerated dose/dose lethal to 10% of mice (MTD/LD10) was identified for 24 drugs, and in patients the maximum administered dose (MAD) was associated with dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in initial clinical trials with 20 compounds. In addition, for 13 agents, the toxicity of the drug at one-tenth the mouse MTD/LD10 was also investigated in rats, following repeated administration (20 doses). A phase I trial starting dose of one-tenth the mouse MTD/LD10 (mg m(-2)) was, or would have been, safe for all 25 compounds. With the exception of nausea and vomiting, which cannot be assessed in rodents, other common DLTs were accurately predicted by the murine studies (i.e. 7/7 haematological and 3/3 neurological DLTs). For two of the 13 drugs studied in rats, repeated administration of one-tenth the mouse MTD/LD10 was toxic, leading to a reduction in the phase I trial starting dose; however, one-tenth the mouse MTD/LD10 was subsequently tolerated in patients. For the 20 drugs where clinical DLT was reached, the median ratio of the human MAD to the mouse MTD/LD10 was 2.6 (range 0.2-16) and the median ratio of the clinical starting dose to the MAD was 35 (range 2.3-160). In contrast, in 13 subsequent phase I trials with 11 of the initial 25 drugs, the median ratio of the clinical starting dose to the MAD was 2.8 (range 1.6-56), emphasizing the value of early clinical data in rapidly defining the dose range for therapeutic studies. For all 25 drugs studied, rodent-only toxicology provided a safe and rapid means of identifying the phase I trial starting dose and predicting commonly encountered DLTs. This study has shown that the routine use of a non-rodent species in preclinical toxicology studies prior to initial clinical trials with cancer therapeutics is not necessary. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacologic study of PN401 and fluorouracil in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of administering PN401, an oral uridine prodrug, as a rescue agent for the toxic effects of fluorouracil (5-FU), and to determine the maximum-tolerated dose of 5-FU when given with PN401, with an 8-hour treatment interval between these agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of 5-FU, given as a rapid intravenous infusion weekly for 3 consecutive weeks every 4 weeks. PN401 was administered orally 8 hours after 5-FU administration, to achieve sustained plasma uridine concentrations of at least 50 micromol/L. Initially, patients received 6 g of PN401 orally every 8 hours for eight doses (schedule 1). When dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was consistently noted, patients then received 6 g of PN401 every 2 hours for three doses and every 6 hours thereafter for 15 doses (schedule 2). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients received 50 courses of 5-FU and PN401. Among patients on schedule 1, DLT (grade 4 neutropenia complicated by fever and diarrhea) occurred in those receiving 5-FU 1,250 mg/m(2)/wk. Among patients on schedule 2, 5-FU 1,250 mg/m(2)/wk was well tolerated, but grade 4, protracted (> 5 days) neutropenia was consistently noted in those treated with higher doses of the drugs. Nonhematologic effects were uncommon and rarely severe. The pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, assessed in 12 patients on schedule 2, were nonlinear, with the mean area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) increasing from 298 +/- 44 to 962 +/- 23 micromol/L and mean clearance decreasing from 34 +/- 4 to 15.6 +/- 0.38 L/h/m(2) as the dose of 5-FU was increased from 1,250 to 1,950 mg/m(2)/wk. 5-FU AUCs achieved with 5-FU 1,250 mg/m(2)/wk for 6 weeks along with the intensified PN401 dose schedule were approximately five-fold higher than those achieved with 5-FU alone. Plasma uridine concentrations increased with each of the three PN401 doses given every 2 hours, and uridine steady-state concentrations were greater than 50 micromol/L. CONCLUSION: Treatment with oral PN401 beginning 8 hours after 5-FU administration is well tolerated and results in sustained plasma uridine concentrations above therapeutic-relevant levels. The recommended 5-FU dosage for phase II evaluations is 1,250 mg/m(2)/wk for 3 weeks every 4 weeks with the intensified PN401 dose schedule (schedule 2). At this dose, systemic exposure to 5-FU as measured by AUC was five-fold higher than that observed after administration of a conventional 5-FU bolus. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacologic study of the specific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BAY 12-9566 on a protracted oral daily dosing schedule in patients with solid malignancies.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of administering BAY 12-9566, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor with relative specificity against MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9, on a protracted oral daily dosing schedule in patients with advanced solid malignancies. The study also sought to determine the principal toxicities of BAY 12-9566, whether plasma BAY 12-9566 steady state concentrations (C(ss)) of biologic relevance could be sustained for prolonged periods, and whether BAY 12-9566 affected plasma concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with solid malignancies were treated with BAY 12-9566 at daily oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,600 mg. BAY 12-9566 dose schedules included 100 mg once daily, 400 mg once daily, 400 mg twice daily, 400 mg three times daily, 400 mg four times daily, and 800 mg twice daily. Plasma was collected to study the range of BAY 12-9566 C(ss) values achieved, and exploratory studies were performed to assess the effects of BAY 12-9566 on plasma concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were treated with 47 28-day courses of BAY 12-9566. The most common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting, abnormalities in hepatic functions, and thrombocytopenia, which were rarely clinically significant. BAY 12-9566 was well tolerated on all dose schedules, and there was no consistent dose-limiting toxicity that precluded treatment in the range of dose schedules evaluated. Instead, dose escalation was terminated because BAY 12-9566 plasma C(ss) values increased less than proportionately and plateaued as the daily dose was increased within the dose range of 100 to 1,600 mg/d, suggesting saturable drug absorption. Mean plasma C(ss) values achieved with all dose schedules exceeded BAY 12-9566 concentrations required to inhibit MMPs in vitro and in vascular invasion and tumor proliferation in vivo models. There were no consistent effects of BAY 12-9566 on the plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 over the continuous dosing period at any dose schedule level. However, plasma levels of TIMP-2 seemed to increase in a dose-dependent manner (r(2) =.50, P =.046). CONCLUSIONS: The recommended dose of BAY 12-9566 for subsequent disease directed studies is 800 mg twice daily, which resulted in biologically relevant plasma C(ss) values and an acceptable toxicity profile. Although exploratory studies of MMPs in plasma were not revealing, it is conceivable that some tumor types and disease settings are more likely to produce more readily quantifiable levels of activated MMPs than others. Therefore, attempts to identify and quantify surrogate markers of MMP inhibitory effects should continue to be performed in disease-directed studies in more homogenous patient populations. (+info)
Phase I study of 3-week schedule of irinotecan combined with cisplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors.
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility, pharmacokinetic interaction, and possible sequence-dependent effects of the irinotecan/cisplatin combination given every 3 weeks, and to assess the influence of additional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the hematologic toxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who had received no more than one prior combination chemotherapy regimen or two single-agent regimens were entered. Treatment consisted of a 90-minute irinotecan infusion followed by a 3-hour cisplatin infusion on day 1, with cycles repeated once every 3 weeks. After the maximum-tolerated dose was determined, the sequence of administration was reversed. In a separate cohort of six patients, we assessed the effect of G-CSF on the experienced hematologic toxicity and dose-intensity. Irinotecan doses ranged from 175 to 300 mg/m(2) and cisplatin doses ranged from 60 to 80 mg/m(2). RESULTS: Fifty-two patients entered the study; one was not eligible, and two were not assessable for response. Twenty-five patients were pretreated, and 26 were not. Fifty-one patients received a total of 223 courses. The dose-limiting toxicity was a combination of neutropenic fever, diarrhea, and fatigue at a dose level combining irinotecan 300 mg/m(2) with cisplatin 80 mg/m(2). Neutropenia was common (grades 3 to 4, 68%). Irinotecan pharmacokinetics were linear over the dose range studied. No sequence-dependent side effects were observed. Tumor responses included three complete responses and eight partial responses. CONCLUSION: For phase II studies, we recommend irinotecan 260 mg/m(2) combined with cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks for chemotherapy-naive patients in good physical condition, and irinotecan 200 mg/m(2) combined with cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) for other patients. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic, metabolic, and pharmacodynamic profiles in a dose-escalating study of irinotecan and cisplatin.
PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of irinotecan and cisplatin administered once every 3 weeks in a dose-escalating study in patients with solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two cancer patients were treated with irinotecan administered as a 90-minute infusion at doses ranging from 175 to 300 mg/m(2) followed by cisplatin administered as a 3-hour intravenous infusion at doses ranging from 60 to 80 mg/m(2). After reaching the maximum-tolerated dose, the sequence of drug administration was revised. For pharmacokinetic analysis, serial plasma samples were obtained on days 1 through 3 of the first cycle. Forty-five patients were assessable for irinotecan pharmacokinetics, and 46 were assessable for cisplatin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Irinotecan and cisplatin demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics comparable to that observed with single-agent administration, which suggests an absence of pharmacokinetic interaction. SN-38G constituted the major plasma metabolite of irinotecan, whereas 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(1-piperidino)1-amino]-carbonyloxycamptothecine (NPC) was only a minor metabolite in plasma, possibly indicating a rapid conversion of NPC to SN-38. The terminal elimination phases of SN-38 and SN-38G were similar and relatively delayed when compared with the elimination of irinotecan. Maximal DNA adduct formation did not significantly differ from that observed with single-agent administration. The percentage decrease in WBC was significantly related to the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCs) of the lactone form of irinotecan (P =.0245) and SN-38 (P =. 0123). The severity of diarrhea was not significantly related to the AUCs of irinotecan and SN-38, nor to the systemic glucuronidation rate of SN-38. CONCLUSION: There was no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between irinotecan and cisplatin in this study. Reversion of the administration sequence of the drugs did not seem to have any influence on the pharmacokinetics. The incidence and severity of delayed-type diarrhea was not related to any of the studied parameters. (+info)
Phase I clinical trial design in cancer drug development.
The past decade has seen the publication of a number of new proposals for the design of phase I trials of anticancer agents. The purpose of these proposals has been to address ethical concerns about treating excessive numbers of patients at subtherapeutic doses of a new agent and to increase the overall efficiency of the process while enhancing the precision of the recommended phase II dose. In early 1998, a workshop of phase I investigators was held under the sponsorship of Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute (Wallingford, CT) to review the experience to date with novel phase I methodologies, with a particular focus on their efficiency and safety. This report summarizes the material presented. It was concluded that for phase I trials of antineoplastics (cytotoxics), which begin at 0.1 mouse-equivalent LD10 doses, evidence to date suggests that the historic approach of using a modified Fibonacci escalation and three patients per dose level is not necessary and is seldom used. One patient per dose level and more rapid escalation schemes, both empirically based and statistically based, are commonly used with apparent safety. There remain questions, however: Which of the dose escalation schemes is optimal? Are there alternatives to toxicity as a phase I end point, and will these end points be reliable in defining active doses? Answering these questions in a reasonable time frame will be important if new anticancer agents are not to suffer undue delays in phase I evaluation. (+info)
Balb/c mice as a preclinical model for raltitrexed-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.
Raltitrexed (RTX) is an antifolate thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. RTX induces proliferating tissue toxicities that are largely confined to the intestine, with diarrhea being a severe side effect in a small but significant minority of patients. Similarly, weight loss and diarrhea were observed in BALB/c mice, and a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined as approximately 5-10 mg/kg/day x 5 days. At an equivalent dose of 10 mg/kg/day x 5 days (dl-5), DBA2 mice lost considerably less weight, leading to a higher MTD (>500 mg/kg/day x 5 days), and there was no evidence of diarrhea. Histopathological consequences of damage, such as changes in small intestinal crypt architecture and villus atrophy induced by the 10-mg/kg/day dose, were greater and of longer duration in BALB/c mice. A higher dose of RTX (100 mg/kg/day x 5) induced weight loss and histopathological damage similar to that seen in BALB/c mice (10 mg/kg/ day x 5) but was of later onset, nadir, and recovery. Small changes to the colon were only observed in BALB/c mice. Pretreatment levels of plasma thymidine, deoxyuridine (approximately 1 microM), and folate (approximately40 ng/ml) were similar in both mouse strains. A single injection of radiolabeled RTX (5 mg/kg/ day) did not lead to any marked difference 24 h later in the total drug concentration and distribution of polyglutamates (comprising 70-80% of drug extracted) in the liver, kidney, and intestinal epithelium (large and small intestine) between the two mouse strains. Further studies used a RIA to measure RTX polyglutamate formation in tissues at various times and drug doses. This led to the conclusion that, although there was a higher accumulation of RTX in BALB/c small intestinal epithelium (days 4-6), it may be an effect secondary to another undetermined cause of increased drug sensitivity. This model represents a vehicle by which the etiology and treatment of severe clinical toxicity induced by RTX may be evaluated. (+info)