(1/101) Evaluation of pulmonary resistance and maximal expiratory flow measurements during exercise in humans.
To evaluate methods used to document changes in airway function during and after exercise, we studied nine subjects with exercise-induced asthma and five subjects without asthma. Airway function was assessed from measurements of pulmonary resistance (RL) and forced expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. In the asthmatic subjects, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) fell 24 +/- 14% and RL increased 176 +/- 153% after exercise, whereas normal subjects experienced no change in airway function (RL -3 +/- 8% and FEV1 -4 +/- 5%). During exercise, there was a tendency for FEV1 to increase in the asthmatic subjects but not in the normal subjects. RL, however, showed a slight increase during exercise in both groups. Changes in lung volumes encountered during exercise were small and had no consistent effect on RL. The small increases in RL during exercise could be explained by the nonlinearity of the pressure-flow relationship and the increased tidal breathing flows associated with exercise. In the asthmatic subjects, a deep inspiration (DI) caused a small, significant, transient decrease in RL 15 min after exercise. There was no change in RL in response to DI during exercise in either asthmatic or nonasthmatic subjects. When percent changes in RL and FEV1 during and after exercise were compared, there was close agreement between the two measurements of change in airway function. In the groups of normal and mildly asthmatic subjects, we conclude that changes in lung volume and DIs had no influence on RL during exercise. Increases in tidal breathing flows had only minor influence on measurements of RL during exercise. Furthermore, changes in RL and in FEV1 produce equivalent indexes of the variations in airway function during and after exercise. (+info)
(2/101) Randomized trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in chronic stable pulmonary sarcoidosis: a pilot study.
Pulmonary sarcoidosis is a disease in which the pathological processes are distributed along lymphatic pathways, particularly those around the bronchovascular bundles. Delivery of disease-modulating drugs by the inhaled route is therefore an attractive option. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate 2 mg x day(-1) in adults with stable pulmonary sarcoidosis. Forty-four adult patients (22 from each centre) were enrolled from outpatient clinics in two London teaching hospitals in a two centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Primary end points were home recordings of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Secondary end points were symptom scores, use of rescue bronchodilator medication, and clinic values for PEFR, FEV1, FVC, forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL,CO), and total lung capacity (TLC). Symptom scores of cough, breathlessness and wheeze were lower in the active treatment group, but this did not reach statistical significance, and a general health perception assessment (Short Form (SF)-36) showed a difference between active and placebo treatment. No significant differences were found between the two groups in any physiological outcome measure. No new adverse reactions were detected. The results of this pilot study do not show an objective benefit of inhaled fluticasone propionate in pulmonary sarcoidosis where the disease is stable and is controlled without the use of inhaled corticosteroids. (+info)
(3/101) Respiratory mechanics and maximal expiratory flow in the anesthetized mouse.
Mice have been widely used in immunologic and other research to study the influence of different diseases on the lungs. However, the respiratory mechanical properties of the mouse are not clear. This study extended the methodology of measuring respiratory mechanics of anesthetized rats and guinea pigs and applied it to the mouse. First, we performed static pressure-volume and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves in 10 anesthetized paralyzed C57BL/6 mice. Second, in 10 mice, we measured dynamic respiratory compliance, forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s, and maximal expiratory flow before and after methacholine challenge. Averaged total lung capacity and functional residual capacity were 1.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.25 +/- 0.01 ml, respectively, in 20 mice weighing 22.2 +/- 0.4 g. The chest wall was very compliant. In terms of vital capacity (VC) per second, maximal expiratory flow values were 13.5, 8.0, and 2.8 VC/s at 75, 50, and 25% VC, respectively. Maximal flow-static pressure curves were relatively linear up to pressure equal to 9 cm H(2)O. In addition, methacholine challenge caused significant decreases in respiratory compliance, forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s, and maximal expiratory flow, indicating marked airway constriction. We conclude that respiratory mechanical parameters of mice (after normalization with body weight) are similar to those of guinea pigs and rats and that forced expiratory maneuver is a useful technique to detect airway constriction in this species. (+info)
(4/101) Lung function in school-aged asthmatic children with inhaled cromoglycate, nedocromil and corticosteroid therapy.
Two-thirds of the children with asthma in our area use cromones and only one-third steroids as the maintenance therapy. This study aimed to evaluate our treatment policy based on the international consensus. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), dynamic spirometry and bronchodilation test results were therefore collected in 195 school-aged patients who visited our outpatient clinic in 1995. Sixty-four children (33%) used cromoglycate, 86 (44%) nedocromil and 45 (23%) inhaled steroids. Twenty-five (12%) needed combination therapy, mainly with salmeterol. Lung function results were good, and there were no significant differences between the therapeutic groups irrespective of whether pre- or postbronchodilator values were considered. PEF was decreased in eight (4%), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI) in four (2%) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) in 33 (17%) patients. At least one result was decreased in 39 (20%) cases, in most cases (77%) MMEF alone. Significant rises after salbutamol inhalations were observed in 17 (9%) in PEF, in two (1%) in FEV1 and 20 (10%) in MMEF values. Thus, the bronchodilation test was positive in 33 (17%) cases, and in 22 (11%) cases it was the only sign of bronchial obstruction. Over 70% of the children with asthma can be treated with cromones by a stepwise treatment modality. Inhaled steroids can be restricted to those not controllable by cromones. Lung function tests, including postbronchodilator values, should be part of the follow-up of continuous maintenance medication for asthma. (+info)
(5/101) Mechanism of reduced maximal expiratory flow with aging.
To investigate the determinants of maximal expiratory flow (MEF) with aging, 17 younger (7 men and 10 women, 39 +/- 4 yr, mean +/- SD) and 19 older (11 men and 8 women, 69 +/- 3 yr) subjects with normal pulmonary function were studied. For further comparison, we also studied 10 middle-aged men with normal lung function (54 +/- 6 yr) and 15 middle-aged men (54 +/- 7 yr) with mild chronic airflow limitation (CAL; i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity = 63 +/- 8%). MEF, static lung elastic recoil pressure (Pst), and the minimal pressure for maximal flow (Pcrit) were determined in a pressure-compensated, volume-displacement body plethysmograph. Values were compared at 60, 70, and 80% of total lung capacity. In the older subjects, decreases in MEF (P < 0.01) and Pcrit (P < 0.05), compared with the younger subjects, were explained mainly by loss of Pst (P < 0.05). In the CAL subjects, MEF and Pcrit were lower (P < 0.05) than in the older subjects, but Pst was similar. Thus decreases in MEF and Pcrit were greater than could be explained by the loss of Pst and appeared to be related to increased upstream resistance. These data indicate that the loss of lung recoil explains the decrease in MEF with aging subjects, but not in the mild CAL patients that we studied. (+info)
(6/101) Lung function in textile workers.
Acute changes in ventilatory function during a workshift with exposure to hemp, flax, and cotton dust were measured on Mondays in a group of 61 textile workers, all working on carding machines. In addition, single-breath diffusing capacity (DLCOSB) was measured before dust exposure on Monday in 30 of the 61 workers. Large acute reductions during dust exposure were recorded in maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% VC (MEF50%), ranging from 38 to 22%. Acute reductions of FEV1-0 were considerably smaller, ranging from 17 to 9%. There was a statistically significant increase in residual volume (RV) with very small and insignificant changes in total lung capacity (TLC). Although preshift FEV1-0 and FVC were decreased, DLCOSB was within normal limits. Plethysmographic measurements in six healthy volunteers exposed to hemp-dust extract confirmed the results obtained in textile workers, that is, that TLC does not change significantly during dust-induced airway constriction and that maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% VC (MEF50%) is a more sensitive test than FEV1-0 in detecting acute ventilatory changes caused by the dust extract. (+info)
(7/101) Lung function measured by the oscillometric method in prematurely born children with chronic lung disease.
Premature birth is related to a chronic respiratory morbidity, which may persist until school-age. In these children, the forced oscillation technique would be suitable for evaluation of lung function even at preschool age, since it requires only minimal patient cooperation. In order to investigate the oscillometric findings related to premature birth, using the oscillation technique and conventional lung function methods 49 school-aged children born prematurely with (n=15) or without (n=34) chronic lung disease (CLD), and 18 healthy children born at full term were studied. Children with CLD had higher respiratory resistance (Rrs,5) and lower reactance (Xrs,5) than prematurely born children without CLD or healthy controls. Both Rrs,5 (r=-0.55, p<0.0001) and Xrs,5 (r=0.76, p<0.0001) were significantly associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the agreement with spirometry being better in Xrs,5 than in Rrs,5 (p=0.02). Rrs,5 was significantly related to airway resistance (Raw) measured by body plethysmography (r=0.63, p<0.0001), but underestimated resistance at high values of Raw. There was no significant relationship between the pulmonary diffusing capacity and the oscillometric findings. Compared to conventional methods, the oscillometric method yields concordant information on the severity of lung function deficit in children born prematurely, with or without chronic lung disease. In these children, the oscillometric findings are probably due to peripheral or more widespread airway obstruction. As conventional methods are not usually suitable for preschool children, oscillometry may serve as an alternative for early evaluation of chronic lung disease among children with premature birth in clinical or research settings. (+info)
(8/101) Respiratory function in coffee workers.
Respiratory function was studied in three groups of workers employed in processing coffee. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee processors than in control workers. In each group during the Monday work shift there was a significant mean acute decrease in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% vital capacity (VC), ranging from 4.0% to 8.7%, and at 25% VC, ranging from 6.0% to 18.5%. Acute reductions in FEV1.0 were considerably lower, ranging from 1.3% to 2.8%. On Thursdays the acute ventilatory function changes were somewhat lower than on Mondays. Acute decreases in flow rates at low lung volumes suggest that the bronchoconstrictor effect of the dust acts mostly on smaller airways. Administration of Intal (disodium cromoglycate) before the shift considerably diminished acute reductions in flow rates. A comparison of Monday pre-shift values of ventilatory capacity in coffee workers with those in controls indicates that exposure to dust in green or roasted coffee processing may lead to persistent loss of pulmonary function. (+info)