Calcification in chronic maxillary sinusitis: comparison of CT findings with histopathologic results.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to differentiate fungal from nonfungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment for chronic sinusitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT findings of calcifications in chronic fungal and nonfungal maxillary sinusitis. METHODS: Five hundred ten patients with pathologically proved chronic maxillary sinusitis were studied with unenhanced CT before undergoing sinonasal surgery. In 36 patients, the CT scans were reviewed retrospectively to ascertain the shape and location of intrasinus calcifications. RESULTS: Calcifications were found in 20 (51%) of 39 patients with fungal sinusitis and in 16 (3%) of 471 patients with nonfungal sinusitis. Direct histopathologic correlation was performed in two of 16 patients with nonfungal sinusitis who had intrasinus calcification. The location of intrasinus calcification was central in 95% of the patients with fungal sinusitis and peripheral in 81% of those with nonfungal sinusitis. Although calcifications with a nodular or linear shape were seen in both fungal and nonfungal sinusitis, fine punctate type calcifications were seen only in those with fungal sinusitis (50%) and round or eggshell type calcifications only in those with nonfungal sinusitis (19%). CONCLUSION: Intrasinus calcifications are different in location and shape between fungal and nonfungal maxillary sinusitis. Although intrasinus calcification is uncommon in nonfungal sinusitis, the CT finding of intrasinus calcification may be helpful for differentiating fungal from nonfungal maxillary sinusitis. (+info)
Comparison of the response to histamine challenge of the nose and the maxillary sinus: effect of loratadine.
To study the response of the maxillary sinus to histamine provocation, we performed a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial during which nonallergic subjects without symptoms of rhinitis (n = 25) received either 10 mg loratadine or placebo once daily for a week and then underwent nasal challenge with histamine (3, 10, and 30 mg/ml) followed, 24 h later, by a maxillary sinus challenge while still receiving the medication. Nasal challenge with histamine led to significant increases in vascular permeability, reflex nasal secretions, sneezing, and other nasal symptoms. Sinus challenge resulted in significant increases in vascular permeability within the sinus cavity (P < 0.01) and some nasal symptoms but no significant change in reflex nasal secretions. The response of the sinus mucosa to histamine was lower in magnitude than that of the nose. Treatment with loratadine resulted in a significant inhibition of the histamine-induced changes in both nasal and sinus cavities. Our data suggest the lack of a sinonasal reflex response to histamine provocation of the maxillary sinus of nonallergic individuals. (+info)
The pterygopalatine fossa: postoperative MR imaging appearance.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is an important anatomic location of the deep portion of the face. It is essential to review this area on both pre- and posttreatment studies of head and neck malignancies to assess local extent of disease or recurrence and perineural tumor spread. The purpose of this study was to review the postoperative appearance of the PPF on MR images. METHODS: Imaging and clinical data of 10 patients who underwent surgical resection of tumor in which the PPF was violated at surgery were reviewed. Patients were included in the study if there was no imaging or clinical evidence of tumor in the PPF pre- or postoperatively. Postoperative MR studies were examined to assess the appearance of the PPF. RESULTS: The PPF is consistently and persistently abnormal after surgical violation. There is loss of the normal T1 signal hyperintensity and abnormal, increased contrast enhancement, as seen on fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. These postoperative changes are strikingly similar to those of tumor involvement. CONCLUSION: After surgical violation, the PPF will always appear abnormal on MR images, and the expected imaging findings must be recognized to avoid the misdiagnosis of tumor recurrence. (+info)
Ventilator-associated sinusitis: microbiological results of sinus aspirates in patients on antibiotics.
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of systemic antibiotics on the treatment of ventilator-associated infectious maxillary sinusitis (VAIMS) is debated. The objective of this study was to determine the etiologic diagnosis of VAIMS in patients receiving antibiotics. METHODS: Patients mechanically ventilated for more than or equal to 72 h, who had persistent fever while on antibiotics for more than or equal to 48 h, underwent computed tomography scan followed by transnasal puncture of involved maxillary sinuses. VAIMS was defined as follows: fever greater than or equal to 38 degrees C, radiographic signs (air fluid level or opacification of maxillary sinuses on computed tomography scan), and a quantitative culture of sinus aspirate yielding more than or equal to 103 colony-forming units/ml. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had radiographic signs of sinusitis. The mean +/- SD prior durations of mechanical ventilation and antibiotic exposure were 9.5 +/- 4.7 days and 6 +/- 4 days, respectively. Six unilateral and nine bilateral VAIMS were diagnosed in 15 patients. The median number of etiologic organisms per patient was two (range, one to four). The bacteriologic cultures yielded gram-positive bacteria (n = 21), gram-negative bacteria (n = 22), and yeasts (n = 5). Forty percent of causative agents were susceptible to the antibiotics prescribed. Seven patients with VAIMS developed 10 concomitant infections: ventilator-associated pneumonia (n = 5), urinary tract infection (n = 3), catheter infections (n = 2). In all cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia, the implicated agents were the causative agents of VAIMS. CONCLUSION: In VAIMS patients on antibiotics, quantitative cultures of sinus aspirates may contribute to establish the diagnosis. The frequent recovery of microorganisms susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment administered suggests that therapy of VAIMS with systemic antibiotics may not be sufficient. (+info)
Sinusitis demonstrated by brain scanning.
Increased concentration of technietum was noted in the region of the frontal, ethmoidal, and maxillary sinuses of two patients. Radiographs of the sinuses revealed extensive sinusitis involving the sinuses in the area of increased uptake. The increased uptake was attributed to the sinusitis. (+info)
Maxillary sinusitis caused by Actinomucor elegans.
We report the first case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Actinomucor elegans in an 11-year-old patient. Histopathological and mycological examinations of surgical maxillary sinuses samples showed coenocytic hyphae characteristic of mucoraceous fungi. The fungi recovered had stolons and rhizoids, nonapophyseal and globose sporangia, and whorled branched sporangiophores and was identified as A. elegans. After surgical cleaning and chemotherapy with amphotericin B administered intravenously and by irrigation, the patient became asymptomatic and the mycological study results were negative. (+info)
Contrast-enhanced conventional CT in patients after surgery for malignant tumors: evaluation of the optimal method of the administration of the contrast medium.
Patients after ablative surgery for malignant tumors require computed tomography (CT) examination of a wide area on the head and neck to follow-up for recurrence and lymph metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine a more effective method for the infusion of the contrast medium into post-operative patients undergoing conventional CT, based on the relationship between the method of administering the contrast medium and the contrast-enhancing effect in the internal jugular vein. First eleven images were selected from the existing contrast-enhanced and plain CT images in a manner such that the CT values of the internal jugular vein were distributed evenly in a range of 50-180. Seven experienced observers evaluated the contrast-enhancing effect of each image set at a window value of 40 and window widths of 120, 200, and 280. Secondly, the CT values of the right internal jugular vein were measured in a total of 10 CT images from the thyroid to maxillary sinus level from each of 60 post-operative patients. The injection needles and contrast-enhancing techniques used in the 60 patients were drip infusion using an 18G injection needle in 20, drip infusion using a 21G injection needle with bolus intravenous injection immediately before scanning in 20, and drip infusion using a 23G injection needle with bolus intravenous injection immediately before scanning in 20. A CT value of 100 or above, preferably 120 or above, in the internal jugular vein was needed for the contrast-enhancing effect of a CT image to be judged as clinically significant. Our results found that, when a conventional CT was used in patients after surgery for malignant tumors, drip infusion using a 21G or 23G injection needle should be combined with bolus injections immediately before the beginning of scanning, and at the glottis or submandibular gland level during the scanning. A sufficient contrast-enhancing effect can also be obtained by drip infusion using an 18G injection needle without bolus injection. (+info)
A combined frontal and maxillary sinus approach for repulsion of the third maxillary molar in a horse.
The 3rd maxillary molar is a difficult tooth to remove by extraction or repulsion. A combined frontal and maxillary approach provides good exposure for repulsion of this tooth, debridement of the sinuses, and placement of an alveolar seal. The improved exposure should minimize operative difficulties and postoperative complications. (+info)