Phase I study of intrapleural batimastat (BB-94), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions.
Tumor cells and associated stromal cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), contributing to invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Batimastat (BB-94) is a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor that causes resolution of ascites and/or tumor growth delay in animal models of breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer. We recruited 18 patients with cytologically positive malignant pleural effusions into a Phase I study of intrapleural BB-94. Three patients received single doses of BB-94 at each dose level: 15, 30, 60, 105, 135, and 300 mg/m2. Two patients were retreated with a second course at 60 and 105 mg/m2. BB-94 was detectable in plasma 1 h after intrapleural administration, and peak levels of 20-200 ng/ml occurred after 4 h to 1 week. BB-94 persisted in the plasma for up to 12 weeks, at levels exceeding the IC50s for target MMPs. Peak values were higher, and persistence in the plasma was longer after higher doses of BB-94. The treatment was well tolerated. Toxic effects included low-grade fever for 24-48 h (6 of 18 patients, 33%) and reversible asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes (8 patients, 44%). Toxicity seemed unrelated to BB-94 dose or plasma levels. Sixteen patients evaluable for response required significantly fewer pleural aspirations in the 3 months after BB-94 compared with the 3 months before. Seven patients (44%) required no further pleural aspiration until death/last follow-up. After 1 month, patients treated with 60-300 mg/m2 BB-94 had significantly better dyspnea scores, indicating improved exercise tolerance, compared with baseline scores the day after BB-94. The maximum tolerated intrapleural dose remains to be defined, but it is clear that intrapleural BB-94 is well tolerated, with evidence of local activity. (+info)
Stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 do not play major roles in a model of chondrocyte mediated cartilage breakdown.
AIMS: To determine the collective roles of stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 in chondrocyte mediated cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in tissue culture model systems. METHODS: Bovine nasal cartilage explants were cultured with and without recombinant human interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), recombinant human tumour necrosis factor alpha, or retinoic acid. Proteoglycan and type II collagen release were determined by colorimetric assay and immunoassay, respectively, in the absence and presence of matrixin inhibitors. Potential toxic effects of the inhibitors were assessed by measuring rates of glycolysis. RESULTS: Loss of proteoglycan and type II collagen from nasal cartilage was inhibited by batimastat, a broad spectrum matrixin inhibitor. BB-3437, a selective inhibitor of stromelysin, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3, at the concentrations used in this study, showed a weak but dose dependent inhibitory effect on the IL-1 stimulated degradation of type II collagen, but had virtually no effect on proteoglycan breakdown. Neither inhibitor affected rates of glycolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 are unlikely to contribute to chondrocyte mediated proteoglycan degradation in our model system. The modest effect of a selective inhibitor of these enzymes on IL-1 stimulated collagen breakdown suggests a minor role for one or more of these proteinases; potent inhibition by an inhibitor of interstitial collagenase and the gelatinases suggests that these enzymes play a major role in IL-1 stimulated, chondrocyte mediated type II collagen breakdown from nasal cartilage. (+info)
Human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 interacts with both the N- and C-terminal domains of gelatinases A and B. Regulation by polyanions.
We compared the association constants of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 with various matrix metalloproteinases with those for TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 using a continuous assay. TIMP-3 behaved more like TIMP-2 than TIMP-1, showing rapid association with gelatinases A and B. Experiments with the N-terminal domain of gelatinase A, the isolated C-terminal domain, or an inactive progelatinase A mutant showed that the hemopexin domain of gelatinase A makes an important contribution to the interaction with TIMP-3. The exchange of portions of the gelatinase A hemopexin domain with that of stromelysin revealed that residues 568-631 of gelatinase A were required for rapid association with TIMP-3. The N-terminal domain of gelatinase B alone also showed slower association with TIMP-3, again implying significant C-domain interactions. The isolation of complexes between TIMP-3 and progelatinases A and B on gelatin-agarose demonstrated that TIMP-3 binds to both proenzymes. We analyzed the effect of various polyanions on the inhibitory activity of TIMP-3 in our soluble assay. The association rate was increased by dextran sulfate, heparin, and heparan sulfate, but not by dermatan sulfate or hyaluronic acid. Because TIMP-3 is sequestered in the extracellular matrix, the presence of certain heparan sulfate proteoglycans could enhance its inhibitory capacity. (+info)
Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases prevents allergen-induced airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.
Although matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been reported to play crucial roles in the migration of inflammatory cells through basement membrane components in vitro, the role of MMPs in the in vivo accumulation of the cells to the site of inflammation in bronchial asthma is still obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, using a murine model of allergic asthma. In this model, we observed the increase of the release of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after Ag inhalation in the mice sensitized with OVA, which was accompanied by the infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Administration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 to airways inhibited the Ag-induced infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils to airway wall and lumen, reduced Ag-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased the numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The inhibition of cellular infiltration to airway lumen was observed also with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. These data suggest that MMPs, especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, are crucial for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness, which are pathophysiologic features of bronchial asthma, and further raise the possibility of the inhibition of MMPs as a therapeutic strategy of bronchial asthma. (+info)
Inhibition of the activities of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 8, and 9 by chlorhexidine.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a host cell-derived proteolytic enzyme family which plays a major role in tissue-destructive inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-9 (gelatinase B), and MMP-8 (collagenase 2) activity. Heat-denatured type I collagen (gelatin) was incubated with pure human MMP-2 or -9 activated with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA), and the proteolytic degradation of gelatin was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie blue staining. The effect of CHX on MMP-8 activity was also studied with a cellular model addressing the ability of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-triggered human peripheral blood neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) to degrade native type I collagen. CHX inhibited the activities of both gelatinases (A and B), but MMP-2 appeared to be more sensitive than MMP-9. Adding calcium chloride to the assay mixtures almost completely prevented the inhibition of MMP-9 activity by CHX, while the inhibition of MMP-2 activity could be reversed only when CHX was used at a low concentration. This observation suggests that CHX may act via a cation-chelating mechanism. CHX dose-dependently inhibited collagenolytic activity of MMP-8 released by PMA-triggered PMNs. MMP-8 without APMA activation was inhibited clearly more efficiently than APMA-activated MMP-8. Our study suggests that the direct inhibition of the MMPs' activities by CHX may represent a new valuable effect of this antimicrobial agent and explains, at least in part, the beneficial effects of CHX in the treatment of periodontitis. (+info)
Production and inhibition of the gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases in a human model of vein graft stenosis.
OBJECTIVES: human vein graft stenoses are caused by intimal hyperplasia, a process which is characterised by extensive degradation and accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study investigated the role of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) - the principal physiological mediators of extracellular matrix degradation - in the development of intimal hyperplasia in cultured human long saphenous vein. DESIGN: experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: paired venous segments with the endothelium intact or denuded were cultured in standard conditions for 14 days. At the termination of culture, MMPs were extracted from one half of the tissue, whilst the remainder of the vein was prepared for histological examination. RESULTS: stereologic analysis revealed that the endothelium intact veins developed a significantly thicker neointima when compared to the denuded venous segments (20 micron v. 0 micron, p=0.006). Quantification of MMPs by substrate gel enzymography demonstrated that the development of a neointima was associated with increased production of the gelatinolytic MMP-9 (p=0. 03) in intact veins. Immunocytochemistry showed that the MMP-9 localised to the internal elastic lumina, which suggested a role in facilitating smooth-muscle-cell migration into the intima. The role of MMPs-2 and -9 in intimal hyperplasia was further investigated by culturing intact venous segments with a therapeutic concentration of doxycycline--a potent MMP inhibitor. These experiments demonstrated that a therapeutic dose of doxycycline significantly reduced neointimal thickness (control 21 micron, doxycycline 10 mg/l-5.5 micron), in conjunction with a significant reduction in the production of MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS: these data suggest that elevated levels of MMPs may play a significant role in the development of human intimal hyperplasia and that inhibition of these enzymes may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hyperplastic lesions. (+info)
Expression of collagenases-1 and -3 and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and -3 correlates with the level of invasion in malignant melanomas.
Since proteolysis of the dermal collagenous matrix and basement membranes is required for local invasive growth and early metastasis formation of cutaneous melanomas, we have analysed the activities/expression levels of certain metalloproteinases in melanomas and cultured melanoma cells by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis. In addition to collagenases-1 and -3 that have been implicated in invasive growth behaviour of various malignant tumours, we analysed the levels of 72-kDa gelatinase and its activators MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 in cultured melanoma cells. The lesions examined included three cases of lentigo maligna and 28 cases of Clark grade I-V melanomas. The premalignant as well as the grade I tumours were consistently negative for collagenase-1 and -3 and TIMP-1 and -3. The collagenases were predominantly expressed in the cancer cells of Clark grade III and IV tumours. TIMP-1 and -3 were abundantly expressed in the cancer and/or stromal cells of grade III and IV melanomas, while TIMP-2 protein was detected also in melanomas representing lower invasive potential. Northern analysis of seven melanoma cell lines showed that the expression of collagenase-1 and TIMPs-1 and -3 was associated with 72-kDa gelatinase positivity. All melanoma cell lines were positive for MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 mRNAs. Our results suggest that overexpression of collagenases-1 and -3 and TIMPs-1 and -3 is induced during melanoma progression. Expression of TIMPs may reflect host response to tumour invasion in an effort to control MMP activity and preserve extracellular matrix integrity. (+info)
Specificity of inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity by doxycycline: relationship to structure of the enzyme.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-8, and MMP-13 by doxycycline, and to determine whether the variable hemopexin-like domain of each MMP was responsible for the differences in susceptibility to doxycycline inhibition among these collagenases. METHODS: Recombinant human MMP-1 (collagenase 1), MMP-8 (collagenase 2), and MMP-13 (collagenase 3), truncated forms of MMP-8 and MMP-13 lacking the hemopexin-like domain, and a mutant form of truncated MMP-13 were used in these studies. The activity of the full-length MMP in the presence of doxycycline was tested against type II collagen, a natural substrate for the enzymes. A small peptolide substrate was used to determine which structural features of the MMPs were related to sensitivity to doxycycline inhibition. RESULTS: The activity of MMP-13 and MMP-8 against type II collagen was inhibited by 50-60% by 30 microM doxycycline, while that of MMP-1 was inhibited only 18% by 50 microM doxycycline. In contrast, in experiments with the peptolide substrate, neither full-length nor truncated MMP-13 was inhibited until the concentration of the drug exceeded 90 microM. MMP-8 and truncated MMP-8 were sensitive to inhibition by 30 microM doxycycline, while MMP-1 was slightly inhibited (14%) by 90 microM doxycycline. For MMP-8, inhibition was reversible upon dilution and was independent of the order in which the reagents were added. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition constant (K(i)) of MMP-8 (K(i) = 36 microM) and truncated MMP-8 (K(i) = 77 microM) indicated that inhibition was noncompetitive. CONCLUSION: Significant inhibition of MMP-13 and MMP-8 activity against collagen occurred in vitro at concentrations that were near the concentrations achieved in serum after oral dosing. Studies with truncated enzymes and 2 substrates suggest that doxycycline disrupts the conformation of the hemopexin-like domain of MMP-13 and the catalytic domain of MMP-8. (+info)