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(1/1163) Expression and tissue localization of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases in human astrocytic tumors.

Three different membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs) are known to activate in vitro the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2, progelatinase A), which is one of the key MMPs in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we have examined production and activation of pro-MMP-2, expression of MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs and their correlation with pro-MMP-2 activation, and localization of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MT2-MMP in human astrocytic tumors. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay demonstrates that the production levels of pro-MMP-2 in the anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are significantly higher than that in the low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.05), or normal brains (P<0.01). Gelatin zymography indicates that the pro-MMP-2 activation ratio is significantly higher in the glioblastomas than in other astrocytic tumors (P<0.01), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.01), and normal brains (P<0.01). The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrate that MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues (17/17 and 12/17 cases, respectively), and their expression levels increase significantly as tumor grade increases. MT3-MMP is detectable in both astrocytic tumor and normal brain tissues, but the mean expression level is approximately 50-fold lower compared with that of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastomas. The activation ratio of pro-MMP-2 correlates directly with the expression levels of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP but not MT3-MMP. In situ hybridization indicates that neoplastic astrocytes express MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastoma tissues (5/5 cases and 5/5 cases, respectively). Immunohistochemically, MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are localized to the neoplastic astrocytes in glioblastoma samples (17/17 cases and 12/17 cases, respectively), which are also positive for MMP-2. In situ zymography shows gelatinolytic activity in the glioblastoma tissues but not in the normal brain tissues. These results suggest that both MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the human malignant astrocytic tumors and that the gelatinolytic activity is involved in the astrocytic tumor invasion.  (+info)

(2/1163) Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed by tumor cells in invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.

Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is a human matrix metalloproteinase specifically expressed by invading tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck. Here, we have further elucidated the role of MMP-13 in tumor invasion by examining its expression in invasive malignant tumors of the female genital tract. Using in situ hybridization, expression of MMP-13 mRNA was detected in 9 of 12 vulvar SCCs, primarily in tumor cells, but not in intact vulvar epithelium, in cervical SCCs (n = 12), or in endometrial (n = 11) or ovarian adenocarcinomas (n = 8). MMP-13 expression was especially abundant in vulvar carcinomas showing metastasis to lymph nodes and was associated with expression of membrane type 1 MMP by tumor cells and gelatinase-A (MMP-2) by stromal cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MMP-13 mRNAs were detected in 9 of 11 cell lines established from vulvar carcinomas and in 4 of 6 cell lines from cervical carcinomas, whereas endometrial (n = 10) and ovarian (n = 9) carcinoma cell lines were negative for MMP-13 mRNA. No correlation was detected between MMP-13 expression and p53 gene mutations in vulvar SCC cell lines. However, MMP-13 expression was detected in 5 of 6 vulvar and cervical SCC cell lines harboring HPV 16 or 68 DNA. These results show that MMP-13 is specifically expressed by malignantly transformed squamous epithelial cells, including vulvar SCC cells, and appears to serve as a marker for their invasive capacity.  (+info)

(3/1163) Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine.

Compromising alterations in villus-crypt structure are common in pigs postweaning. Possible contributions of local inflammatory reactions to villus-crypt alterations during the weaning transition have not been described. This study evaluated local inflammatory responses and their relationship with morphological changes in the intestine in 21-d-old pigs (n = 112) killed either at weaning (Day 0) or 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 7 d after weaning to either milk- or soy-based pelleted diets. Cumulative intake averaged <100 g during the first 2 d postweaning, regardless of diet. During this period of weaning anorexia, inflammatory T-cell numbers and local expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin increased while jejunal villus height, crypt depth and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I RNA expression decreased. Upon resumption of feed intake by the fourth d postweaning, villus height and crypt depth, CD8(+) T cell numbers, MHC class I RNA expression and local expression of stromelysin returned to Day 0 values. Together the results indicate that inadequate feed intake during the immediate postweaning period may contribute to intestinal inflammation and thereby compromise villus-crypt structure and function.  (+info)

(4/1163) Rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by c-Jun display highly metastatic and angiogenic activities in vivo and deregulate gene expression of both angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors.

The comparative tumorigenicity in rats and nude mice of cell lines derived from FR3T3 and transformed by either c-jun, ras, SV40 lt, or bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV1) oncogenes was investigated. c-Jun-transformed cells were as tumorigenic and metastatic as Ras-transformed cells. Latencies were short, and numerous pulmonary metastases were observed in all injected animals. In contrast, tumors induced by s.c. injection of SV40-transformed cells developed slower, and none of the animals who received injections i.v. presented with metastases. BPV1-transformed cells had an intermediate tumorigenic and metastatic activity. Microvessels present in the different tumors were revealed by immunostaining with Griffonia (Bandeiraea) Simplicifolia lectin 1. Tumors obtained with c-Jun-transformed cells exhibited more neovascularization than those induced by the other oncogenes. By comparison to FR3T3 cells or SV40- or BPV1-transformed cells, c-Jun-transformed fibroblasts repress the antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 and SPARC genes, whereas we found that they express higher levels of gene expression of the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, as compared with cells before passage in animals, thrombospondin-1, SPARC, and VEGF gene expression was also deregulated in cell lines isolated from primary tumors induced by BPV1-transformants. Our results indicate that the high transforming potential of c-Jun, evidenced as soon as transformation is established in vitro, correlates with deregulation of gene expression of both angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors leading to rapid neovascularization of tumors.  (+info)

(5/1163) Residue 2 of TIMP-1 is a major determinant of affinity and specificity for matrix metalloproteinases but effects of substitutions do not correlate with those of the corresponding P1' residue of substrate.

The unregulated activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in disease processes including arthritis and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP activities are controlled by four homologous endogenous protein inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), yet different TIMPs show little specificity for individual MMPs. The large interaction interface in the TIMP-1.MMP-3 complex includes a contiguous region of TIMP-1 around the disulfide bond between Cys1 and Cys70 that inserts into the active site of MMP-3. The effects of fifteen different substitutions for threonine 2 of this region reveal that this residue makes a large contribution to the stability of complexes with MMPs and has a dominant influence on the specificity for different MMPs. The size, charge, and hydrophobicity of residue 2 are key factors in the specificity of TIMP. Threonine 2 of TIMP-1 interacts with the S1' specificity pocket of MMP-3, which is a key to substrate specificity, but the structural requirements in TIMP-1 residue 2 for MMP binding differ greatly from those for the corresponding residue of a peptide substrate. These results demonstrate that TIMP variants with substitutions for Thr2 represent suitable starting points for generating more targeted TIMPs for investigation and for intervention in MMP-related diseases.  (+info)

(6/1163) Stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 do not play major roles in a model of chondrocyte mediated cartilage breakdown.

AIMS: To determine the collective roles of stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 in chondrocyte mediated cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in tissue culture model systems. METHODS: Bovine nasal cartilage explants were cultured with and without recombinant human interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), recombinant human tumour necrosis factor alpha, or retinoic acid. Proteoglycan and type II collagen release were determined by colorimetric assay and immunoassay, respectively, in the absence and presence of matrixin inhibitors. Potential toxic effects of the inhibitors were assessed by measuring rates of glycolysis. RESULTS: Loss of proteoglycan and type II collagen from nasal cartilage was inhibited by batimastat, a broad spectrum matrixin inhibitor. BB-3437, a selective inhibitor of stromelysin, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3, at the concentrations used in this study, showed a weak but dose dependent inhibitory effect on the IL-1 stimulated degradation of type II collagen, but had virtually no effect on proteoglycan breakdown. Neither inhibitor affected rates of glycolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stromelysin 1, neutrophil collagenase, and collagenase 3 are unlikely to contribute to chondrocyte mediated proteoglycan degradation in our model system. The modest effect of a selective inhibitor of these enzymes on IL-1 stimulated collagen breakdown suggests a minor role for one or more of these proteinases; potent inhibition by an inhibitor of interstitial collagenase and the gelatinases suggests that these enzymes play a major role in IL-1 stimulated, chondrocyte mediated type II collagen breakdown from nasal cartilage.  (+info)

(7/1163) A three-dimensional construction of the active site (region 507-749) of human neutral endopeptidase (EC.3.4.24.11).

A three-dimensional model of the 507-749 region of neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP; E.C.3.4.24.11) was constructed integrating the results of secondary structure predictions and sequence homologies with the bacterial endopeptidase thermolysin. Additional data were extracted from the structure of two other metalloproteases, astacin and stromelysin. The resulting model accounts for the main biological properties of NEP and has been used to describe the environment close to the zinc atom defining the catalytic site. The analysis of several thiol inhibitors, complexed in the model active site, revealed the presence of a large hydrophobic pocket at the S1' subsite level. This is supported by the nature of the constitutive amino acids. The computed energies of bound inhibitors correspond with the relative affinities of the stereoisomers of benzofused macrocycle derivatives of thiorphan. The model could be used to facilitate the design of new NEP inhibitors, as illustrated in the paper.  (+info)

(8/1163) Systemic viral interleukin-10 gene delivery prevents cartilage invasion by human rheumatoid synovial tissue engrafted in SCID mice.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10) gene delivery on human rheumatoid synovial tissue. METHODS: SCID mice were engrafted subcutaneously with human rheumatoid synovial tissue and homologous cartilage before systemic injection of 10(9) plaque-forming units of type 5 E1a Elb-deficient non-replicative adenovirus vector containing the vIL-10 gene under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter (AdvIL-10; n = 10) or a control gene (AdvIL-10mut; n = 7). Three weeks later, the graft was removed for histologic analysis of cartilage invasion by synovial tissue. The number of CD3-positive mononuclear cells was assessed in the synovial tissue by immunohistology. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and proinflammatory cytokines was determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Systemic vIL-10 gene transfer resulted in high sustained production of vIL-10 protein in SCID mouse sera (mean +/- SD 25 +/- 5 ng/ml on day 40 post vector injection). Moreover, vIL-10 mRNA expression was detected in the synovial tissue 3 weeks after intravenous injection of AdvIL-10, reflecting the gene transfer in the human graft. In animals treated with AdvIL-10, cartilage invasion by rheumatoid synovial tissue was significantly inhibited compared with the control vector (mean +/- SD histologic score 2.5 +/- 0.52 versus 0.75 +/-0.8; P < 0.0001). The number of T cells infiltrating the synovium and perichondral resorption in the animals treated with AdvIL-10 gene were not significantly modified relative to the control vector. In animals treated with AdvIL-10, the MMP-3-TIMP-1 balance was partially restored, independent of the effect on mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor a, IL-1, IL-6, or IL-8. CONCLUSION: Systemic vIL-10 gene transfer prevented cartilage invasion by synovial tissue engrafted in SCID mice. This model offers the opportunity to study the biologic effects of gene transfer in vivo in rheumatoid synovium.  (+info)