Expression and tissue localization of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases in human astrocytic tumors.
Three different membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs) are known to activate in vitro the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2, progelatinase A), which is one of the key MMPs in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we have examined production and activation of pro-MMP-2, expression of MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs and their correlation with pro-MMP-2 activation, and localization of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MT2-MMP in human astrocytic tumors. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay demonstrates that the production levels of pro-MMP-2 in the anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are significantly higher than that in the low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.05), or normal brains (P<0.01). Gelatin zymography indicates that the pro-MMP-2 activation ratio is significantly higher in the glioblastomas than in other astrocytic tumors (P<0.01), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.01), and normal brains (P<0.01). The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrate that MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues (17/17 and 12/17 cases, respectively), and their expression levels increase significantly as tumor grade increases. MT3-MMP is detectable in both astrocytic tumor and normal brain tissues, but the mean expression level is approximately 50-fold lower compared with that of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastomas. The activation ratio of pro-MMP-2 correlates directly with the expression levels of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP but not MT3-MMP. In situ hybridization indicates that neoplastic astrocytes express MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastoma tissues (5/5 cases and 5/5 cases, respectively). Immunohistochemically, MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are localized to the neoplastic astrocytes in glioblastoma samples (17/17 cases and 12/17 cases, respectively), which are also positive for MMP-2. In situ zymography shows gelatinolytic activity in the glioblastoma tissues but not in the normal brain tissues. These results suggest that both MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the human malignant astrocytic tumors and that the gelatinolytic activity is involved in the astrocytic tumor invasion. (+info)
Selective loss of PMA-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in HaCaT keratinocytes is correlated with the inability to induce mitogen-activated protein family kinases.
Many cell types, including fibroblasts and primary keratinocytes, increase matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) production in response to agonists such as growth factors and phorbol esters. However, the spontaneously transformed human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, although it increases MMP-1 production in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), does not respond similarly to stimulation with PMA. This phenomenon occurs even though HaCaT cells remain proliferatively responsive to both agonists, suggesting a HaCaT-specific defect in a PMA-mediated signal transduction pathway. Using an inside-out approach to elucidate the source of this defect, we found that EGF, but not PMA, stimulated MMP-1 promoter activity in transiently transfected HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, an assessment of fibroblast and HaCaT c-fos and c-jun gene expression after exposure to EGF and PMA showed that although both agonists increased the expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA in fibroblasts, only EGF did so in HaCaT keratinocytes. Finally, we looked at the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) family kinases after stimulation with EGF or PMA and found that both agonists increased the phosphorylation and activation of fibroblast extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but only EGF activated the same kinase activities in HaCaT cells. Further, the EGF-mediated increase in MMP-1 gene expression was inhibited by the MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)-specific inhibitor PD98059 and the p38 kinase-specific inhibitor SB203580. Our evidence indicates that although HaCaT MAP kinases are functional, they are not properly regulated in response to the activation of protein kinase C, and that the defect that bars HaCaT MMP-1 expression in response to stimulation with PMA lies before MAP kinase activation. (+info)
Messenger RNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is relatively poor because of the high rate of intrahepatic recurrences. We have previously demonstrated an association between enhanced secretion of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; gelatinase A and matrilysin) and early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine further the relationship between messenger RNA levels of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors and behavior of this carcinoma. METHODS: Messenger RNA expression of gelatinase A, gelatinase B, matrilysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were analyzed in 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were contrasted with the clinicopathological data of the patients. RESULTS: Enhanced mRNA expression of gelatinase A, gelatinase B and matrilysin in tumor was observed in 20, 22 and 19 of 30 patients, respectively. Enhanced mRNA expression of gelatinase A or gelatinase B and of matrilysin showed trends toward presence of capsular invasion (P = 0.078) and intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.064), respectively. Concomitant overexpression of gelatinase A and matrilysin was associated with portal invasion, intrahepatic metastasis and recurrence within the first postoperative year (P < 0.05). A modest increase of mRNA expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in tumor was observed in half of the patients, but did not correlate with any clinicopathological features. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of MMPs may be helpful in disease management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (+info)
N-glycan structures of matrix metalloproteinase-1 derived from human fibroblasts and from HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells.
Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a collagenolytic metalloproteinase capable of cleaving native triple-helical forms of several collagen subtypes, as well as a number of non-collagenous substrates. The role of MMP-1 in various diseases affecting the connective tissue is well characterized. MMP-1 is secreted as both glycosylated and unglycosylated species, and the two forms have been shown to be identical with respect to substrate specificity, specific activity and inhibitory profile. No function for the glycan moiety of the enzyme has been ascribed to date. In the present study, we report on the detailed characterization of MMP-1-derived oligosaccharides. Using strategies based on sequential exoglycosidase digestion combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight MS and electrospray tandem MS, we have characterized the N-glycan structures of MMP-1, derived from human dermal fibroblasts and from the HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line. MMP-1 derived from fibroblasts was found to carry mainly alpha 2,3-sialylated complex-type diantennary glycans. On the other hand, HT-1080 cells produce MMP-1 that has a heterogeneous glycosylation pattern, comprising diantennary glycans carrying Lewis X, LacdiNAc, sialylated LacdiNAc and GalNAc beta 1,4 (Fuc alpha 1,3)GlcNAc (LacdiNAc analogue of Lewis X) as terminal elements. We also show that, of the two potential glycosylation sites in the MMP-1 sequence, only Asn120 is used. (+info)
Phase I study of intrapleural batimastat (BB-94), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions.
Tumor cells and associated stromal cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), contributing to invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Batimastat (BB-94) is a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor that causes resolution of ascites and/or tumor growth delay in animal models of breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer. We recruited 18 patients with cytologically positive malignant pleural effusions into a Phase I study of intrapleural BB-94. Three patients received single doses of BB-94 at each dose level: 15, 30, 60, 105, 135, and 300 mg/m2. Two patients were retreated with a second course at 60 and 105 mg/m2. BB-94 was detectable in plasma 1 h after intrapleural administration, and peak levels of 20-200 ng/ml occurred after 4 h to 1 week. BB-94 persisted in the plasma for up to 12 weeks, at levels exceeding the IC50s for target MMPs. Peak values were higher, and persistence in the plasma was longer after higher doses of BB-94. The treatment was well tolerated. Toxic effects included low-grade fever for 24-48 h (6 of 18 patients, 33%) and reversible asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes (8 patients, 44%). Toxicity seemed unrelated to BB-94 dose or plasma levels. Sixteen patients evaluable for response required significantly fewer pleural aspirations in the 3 months after BB-94 compared with the 3 months before. Seven patients (44%) required no further pleural aspiration until death/last follow-up. After 1 month, patients treated with 60-300 mg/m2 BB-94 had significantly better dyspnea scores, indicating improved exercise tolerance, compared with baseline scores the day after BB-94. The maximum tolerated intrapleural dose remains to be defined, but it is clear that intrapleural BB-94 is well tolerated, with evidence of local activity. (+info)
Residue 2 of TIMP-1 is a major determinant of affinity and specificity for matrix metalloproteinases but effects of substitutions do not correlate with those of the corresponding P1' residue of substrate.
The unregulated activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in disease processes including arthritis and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP activities are controlled by four homologous endogenous protein inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), yet different TIMPs show little specificity for individual MMPs. The large interaction interface in the TIMP-1.MMP-3 complex includes a contiguous region of TIMP-1 around the disulfide bond between Cys1 and Cys70 that inserts into the active site of MMP-3. The effects of fifteen different substitutions for threonine 2 of this region reveal that this residue makes a large contribution to the stability of complexes with MMPs and has a dominant influence on the specificity for different MMPs. The size, charge, and hydrophobicity of residue 2 are key factors in the specificity of TIMP. Threonine 2 of TIMP-1 interacts with the S1' specificity pocket of MMP-3, which is a key to substrate specificity, but the structural requirements in TIMP-1 residue 2 for MMP binding differ greatly from those for the corresponding residue of a peptide substrate. These results demonstrate that TIMP variants with substitutions for Thr2 represent suitable starting points for generating more targeted TIMPs for investigation and for intervention in MMP-related diseases. (+info)
In response to cutaneous injury, expression of collagenase-1 is induced in keratinocytes via alpha2beta1 contact with native type I collagen, and enzyme activity is essential for cell migration over this substratum. However, the cellular mechanism(s) mediating integrin signaling remain poorly understood. We demonstrate here that treatment of keratinocytes cultured on type I collagen with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocking antibodies or a specific receptor antagonist inhibited cell migration across type I collagen and the matrix-directed stimulation of collagenase-1 production. Additionally, stimulation of collagenase-1 expression by hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, and interferon-gamma was blocked by EGFR inhibitors, suggesting a required EGFR autocrine signaling step for enzyme expression. Collagenase-1 mRNA was not detectable in keratinocytes isolated immediately from normal skin, but increased progressively following 2 h of contact with collagen. In contrast, EGFR mRNA was expressed at high steady-state levels in keratinocytes isolated immediately from intact skin but was absent following 2 h cell contact with collagen, suggesting down-regulation following receptor activation. Indeed, tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR was evident as early as 10 min following cell contact with collagen. Treatment of keratinocytes cultured on collagen with EGFR antagonist or heparin-binding (HB)-EGF neutralizing antibodies dramatically inhibited the sustained expression (6-24 h) of collagenase-1 mRNA, whereas initial induction by collagen alone (2 h) was unaffected. Finally, expression of collagenase-1 in ex vivo wounded skin and re-epithelialization of partial thickness porcine burn wounds was blocked following treatment with EGFR inhibitors. These results demonstrate that keratinocyte contact with type I collagen is sufficient to induce collagenase-1 expression, whereas sustained enzyme production requires autocrine EGFR activation by HB-EGF as an obligatory intermediate step, thereby maintaining collagenase-1-dependent migration during the re-epithelialization of epidermal wounds. (+info)
Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent inhibitor of extracellular matrix degradation by cultured human mesangial cells.
Accumulation of the glomerular extracellular matrix (ECM) is a pivotal event in the progression from acute glomerular injury to end-stage renal disease. Although enhanced ECM synthesis has been demonstrated to contribute to ECM accumulation, the role of decreased ECM degradation is largely unknown. It was previously shown that glomerular ECM degradation is mediated by a plasminogen activator (PA)/plasmin/matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) cascade. However, little information is available regarding the factors that regulate the activity of this degradative cascade in normal or pathologic states. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is shown here to be a potent inhibitor of ECM degradation by cultured human mesangial cells. Using human mesangial cells grown on thin films of 125I-labeled Matrigel, dose-dependent inhibition of ECM degradation in the presence of TGF-beta1 was observed, reaching >90% inhibition with 0.4 ng/ml TGF-beta1. Addition of anti-TGF-beta antibodies (4 microg/ml) in the absence of exogenous TGF-beta increased ECM degradation (1.8+/-0.2-fold versus controls, P<0.05). In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor, at concentrations up to 10 ng/ml, had no effect on ECM degradation. TGF-beta completely blocked the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and markedly reduced the conversion of latent MMP-2 to active MMP-2. TGF-beta did not significantly alter the levels of tissue PA, total MMP-2, or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, but did increase the levels of PA inhibitor- (1.8-fold, P<0.05), the major physiologic inhibitor of PA. These data document that TGF-beta is a potent inhibitor of ECM degradation by cultured human mesangial cells, and they suggest that decreased mesangial matrix degradation, caused by TGF-beta-mediated decreases in the activity of the PA/plasmin/MMP-2 cascade, may contribute to the glomerular matrix accumulation that occurs in progressive renal disease. (+info)