A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea. (+info)
Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials.