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(1/229) Human immunodeficiency virus load in breast milk, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 load in breast milk and mastitis were examined as risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV-1. Six weeks after delivery, HIV-1 load and sodium (an indicator of mastitis) were measured in breast milk from 334 HIV-1-infected women in Malawi. Median breast milk HIV-1 load was 700 copies/mL among women with HIV-1-infected infants versus undetectable (<200 copies/mL) among those with uninfected infants, respectively (P<. 0001). Elevated breast milk sodium levels consistent with mastitis occurred in 16.4% of HIV-1-infected women and were associated with increased vertical transmission of HIV-1 (P<.0001). Median breast milk HIV-1 load was 920 copies/mL among women with versus undetectable among those without elevated breast milk sodium levels, respectively (P<.0001). Mastitis and breast milk HIV-1 load may increase the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding.  (+info)

(2/229) Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation.

Previously, we have found that subclinical breast inflammation, as indicated by raised breastmilk concentrations of sodium and the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), was highly prevalent in Bangladesh and associated with poor infant growth. In order to investigate further the prevalence of subclinical breast inflammation and to assess the impact of dietary intervention, we studied rural Tanzanian women taking part in a study of dietary sunflower or red palm oil supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation. We measured breastmilk concentrations of IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta) and the ratio of sodium to potassium. We also estimated systemic inflammation by plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins, alpha1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein. There were highly significant intercorrelations among milk Na/K ratio and concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-beta, the last only after treatment with bile salts which also improved TGF-beta recovery in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma acute phase protein concentrations tended to correlate with milk Na/K ratio and IL-8, suggesting that subclinical breast inflammation was related to systemic inflammation. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E-rich sunflower oil but not provitamin A-containing red palm oil decreased milk Na/K, IL-8 and TGF-beta at 3 months postpartum; however, the effect was significant only for Na/K ratio. The results suggest that milk Na/K ratio, IL-8, and TGF-beta all measure the same phenomenon of subclinical breast inflammation but that Na/K ratio, having the lowest assay variability, is the most useful. Subclinical breast inflammation may result in part from systemic inflammation and may be improved by increased dietary intake of vitamin E-rich sunflower oil.  (+info)

(3/229) Mastitis and immunological factors in breast milk of lactating women in Malawi.

Although an elevated sodium concentration in human milk is suggested to be an indicator of mastitis, it is unclear whether elevated sodium concentrations are associated with immunological and inflammatory mediators in human milk. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationships between elevated breast milk sodium concentrations and levels of lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human milk at 6 weeks postpartum in 96 lactating women in Blantyre, Malawi. Mastitis, as indicated by an elevated breast milk sodium concentration, was present in 15.6% of the women. Women with and without mastitis had respective median levels of other factors as follows: lactoferrin, 1,230 versus 565 mg/liter (P < 0. 0007); lysozyme, 266 versus 274 mg/liter (P = 0.55); SLPI, 76 versus 15 microg/liter, (P < 0.0002); IL-8, 339 versus 25 ng/liter (P < 0. 0001); and RANTES, 82 versus 3 ng/liter (P < 0.0001). Elevated sodium concentrations in breast milk are associated with an increase in levels of some immunological and inflammatory factors in breast milk.  (+info)

(4/229) Gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma in a Nubian buck.

A 6-year-old Nubian buck was presented for bilateral mammary gland enlargement. Gynecomastia and mastitis were diagnosed, and bilateral mastectomy was performed. Histological examination showed mammary adenocarcinoma, active lactation, hyperplasia, and abscessation. Karyotyping showed a normal male. Clinical, therapeutic, etiologic, and epidemiologic aspects of gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma are discussed.  (+info)

(5/229) Differential induction of complement fragment C5a and inflammatory cytokines during intramammary infections with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

The prompt recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection is essential for the defense of the bovine mammary gland against invading pathogens and is determinant for the outcome of the infection. Escherichia coli is known to induce clinical mastitis, characterized by an intense neutrophil recruitment leading to the eradication of the bacteria, whereas Staphylococcus aureus induces subclinical mastitis accompanied by a moderate neutrophil recruitment and the establishment of chronic mastitis. To elicit the neutrophil recruitment into the udder, inflammatory mediators must be produced after recognition of the invading pathogen. To our knowledge, those mediators have never been studied during S. aureus mastitis, although understanding of the neutrophil recruitment mechanisms could allow a better understanding of the differences in the pathogeneses elicited by E. coli and S. aureus. Therefore, we studied, at several time points, the accumulation of neutrophils and the presence of the chemoattractant complement fragment C5a and of the cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-8 in milk after inoculation of E. coli or S. aureus in lactating bovine udders. The low levels of C5a and the absence of cytokines in milk from S. aureus-infected cows, compared to the high levels found in milk from E. coli-infected animals, mirror the differences in the severities of the two inflammatory reactions. The cytokine deficit in milk after S. aureus inoculation in the lactating bovine mammary gland could contribute to the establishment of chronic mastitis. This result could help in the design of preventive or curative strategies against chronic mastitis.  (+info)

(6/229) Diabetic mastopathy. A clinicopathologic review.

Diabetic mastopathy, an uncommon form of lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis, typically occurs in longstanding type 1 diabetes. Nineteen cases meeting predetermined histopathologic criteria for diabetic mastopathy were correlated as to clinical history and disease recurrence. Physical examination revealed palpable discrete masses or diffuse nodularity, both predominantly in the subareolar region. One nonpalpable lesion was detected incidentally during reduction mammoplasty. All cases contained lymphocytic ductitis and lobulitis with varying degrees of keloidal fibrosis, vasculitis, epithelioid fibroblasts, and lymphoid nodule formation. Single mammary lesions were found in 11 patients with type 1 diabetes, 1 with type 2 diabetes, and 3 without diabetes. Four cases were bilateral (3 patients with type 1 and 1 patient with type 2 diabetes). Six of 19 cases recurred (3 ipsilateral, 2 contralateral, and 1 bilateral). We confirm the histopathologic constellation for diabetic mastopathy. However, we question the specificity of these features because of identical findings in patients with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic patients. We found diabetic mastopathy in men and women, as a solitary mass or bilateral disease, and recurrence in either breast, sometimes multiple. Recognition of potential recurrence is important because it might spare patients with documented diabetic mastopathy from repeated breast biopsies.  (+info)

(7/229) The effect of tilmicosin administered to ewes prior to lambing on incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance.

The effect of tilmicosin on the incidence of clinical mastitis and subsequent lamb performance was studied in 9 sheep flocks in Ontario. Ewes were treated randomly with either tilmicosin or placebo approximately one month prior to lambing. Outcome was assessed by comparing rates of clinical mastitis, palpable udder abnormalities, and preweaning (50-day) lamb weights between the 2 treatment groups, while controlling for other important variables. Lambs raised by multiparous ewes treated with tilmicosin were significantly heavier than lambs from placebo-treated multiparous ewes at 50 days. Lambs from tilmicosin-treated ewes were on average 0.52 kg heavier than lambs in the placebo group. There was no difference between treatment groups in the weight of lambs from first parity ewes. Tilmicosin treatment resulted in a 43% decrease in palpable udder abnormalities. Incidence of clinical mastitis did not differ between experimental groups. The administration of tilmicosin prelambing, at the time of routine clostridial disease vaccination, may be a beneficial and convenient way to reduce mastitis infection and improve the preweaning gain of lambs.  (+info)

(8/229) Inoculation of lactating ewes by the intramammary route with Mycoplasma agalactiae: comparative pathogenicity of six field strains.

Contagious agalactia affects goats and sheep. In most infected sheep, the causal agent, Mycoplasma agalactiae, induces mastitis and/or agalactia, keratoconjunctivitis and arthritis. However, a few strains of M. agalactiae were isolated from tank milk from flocks without any clinical signs. The present study was undertaken to compare these apparently "asymptomatic" strains to classical virulent strains in order to assess the pathogenicity of four "asymptomatic" strains. Six groups of lactating ewes were inoculated by the intramammary route with 10(8) viable mycoplasmas of each strain. The clinical signs were regularly evaluated; the excretion of bacteria in milk and the serological response were measured. Ewes were necropsied 7 weeks after inoculation and the level of infection in retromammary lymph nodes was determined. Among the 4 apparently "asymptomatic" strains, 2 were fully virulent as were the strains isolated from discased animals, and the other 2 induced somewhat less severe clinical symptoms. The other parameters, in particular the level of excretion in milk and the level of infection of regional lymph nodes following necropsy were similar for all strains. Mean antibody response was also comparable between the apparently "asymptomatic" and virulent strains, in spite of great individual variability. This observation shows that flocks without any clinical sign from which M. agalactiae is isolated in bulk milk, must be kept under strict control since mycoplasmas may induce severe outbreaks later with changing conditions of breeding.  (+info)