OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were sustained in 1770 bouts. The overall rate of injury was 0.09 per bout and 0.13 per competitor. 91 (57%) injuries were to the head. The average age of those injured was 22 years, with an average of nine years of experience in karate. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of protective padding does not result in higher injury rates than in most other series of Shotokan karate injuries. Strict refereeing is essential, however, to maintain control and minimise contact. (+info)
A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury.
Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made. (+info)
Neutrophil function response to aerobic and anaerobic exercise in female judoka and untrained subjects.
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated reduced immunity in trained athletes. AIM: To assess the effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on the phagocytic process in 18-26 year old trained female judoka (n = 8) and untrained controls (n = 7). METHODS: Each subject participated randomly in two different testing sessions (aerobic, 20 minutes of treadmill running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate; anaerobic, Wingate anaerobic test). Venous blood samples were drawn before, immediately after, and 24 hours after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in basal values of net chemotaxis (chemotaxis--random migration), bactericidal activity, and superoxide anion release between the judoka and the untrained women. There was a significant decrease in net chemotaxis 24 hours after the aerobic exercise in both the judoka (from 64 (19) to 39 (13) cells/field, p < 0.02) and the untrained controls (from 60 (7) to 47 (12) cells/field, p < 0.05). Bactericidal activity and superoxide anion release did not change significantly after aerobic exercise in either group. There were no significant changes in net chemotaxis, bactericidal activity, and superoxide anion release after anaerobic exercise in either the judoka or untrained women. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in net chemotaxis after aerobic, but not after anaerobic, exercise, suggests that net chemotaxis is affected by the combination of exercise intensity and duration, and not by the exercise intensity itself. Similar effects of both exercise sessions in the judoka and the untrained women suggest that training had no effect on neutrophil function response to aerobic and anaerobic exercises. (+info)
Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners.
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi Chuan (TTC) exercise has beneficial effects on the components of physical condition and can produce a substantial reduction in the risk of multiple falls. Previous studies have shown that short term TCC exercise did not improve the scores in the single leg stance test with eyes closed and the sit and reach test. There has apparently been no research into the effects of TCC on total body rotation flexibility and heart rate responses at rest and after a three minute step test. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 28 male TCC practitioners with an average age of 67.5 years old and 13.2 years of TCC exercise experience were recruited to form the TCC group. Another 30 sedentary men aged 66.2 were selected to serve as the control group. Measurements included resting heart rate, left and right single leg stance with eyes closed, modified sit and reach test, total body rotation test (left and right), and a three minute step test. RESULTS: Compared with the sedentary group, the TCC group had significantly better scores in resting heart rate, three minute step test heart rate, modified sit and reach, total body rotation test on both right and left side (p < 0.01), and both right and left leg standing with eyes closed (p < 0.05). According to the American Fitness Standards, the TCC group attained the 90th percentile rank for sit and reach and total body rotation test, right and left. CONCLUSION: Long term regular TCC exercise has favourable effects on the promotion of balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. (+info)
Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the characteristic effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on metabolism and cardiorespiratory response, and to measure its effect on cardiorespiratory function, mental control, immune capacity, and the prevention of falls in elderly people. DESIGN: A review of controlled experimental studies and clinical trials designed with one of two aims: either to assess physiological responses during the performance of TCC or to assess the impact of this exercise on general health and fitness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure, ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)MAX), immune capacity, falls, and fall related factors. SUBJECTS: A total of 2216 men and women. RESULTS: Under review were 31 original studies, published in Chinese or English journals, that met the criteria for inclusion. Most of the papers written in Chinese had not been introduced into the Western literature. Nine of these studies showed that TCC can be classified as moderate exercise, as its does not demand more than 55% of maximal oxygen intake. When this form of exercise and others conducted at equal intensity were compared, TCC showed a significantly lower ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO(2)MAX). Evidence provided by cross sectional and longitudinal studies suggests that TCC exercise has beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal function, posture control capacity, and the reduction of falls experienced by the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: TCC is a moderate intensity exercise that is beneficial to cardiorespiratory function, immune capacity, mental control, flexibility, and balance control; it improves muscle strength and reduces the risk of falls in the elderly. (+info)
Aerobic and anaerobic power responses to the practice of taekwon-do.
BACKGROUND: Practising the martial art of taekwon-do (TKD) has been proposed to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular fitness as well as general physical ability. Furthermore, TKD masters and participants have promoted TKD as a total fitness programme. Research studies substantiating this, however, seem to be lacking, perhaps because TKD is recognised more as a method of self defence than a fitness programme. METHODS: Nineteen TKD practitioners with an average age of 13.8 years and 10.4 months of TKD training experience were recruited to participate. Measurements included resting heart rate, aerobic power, anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity. RESULTS: Paired t test analysis showed no significant differences in either resting heart rate or aerobic power after training. However, significant differences were observed in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity (p = 0.05). The increases in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were 28% and 61.5% respectively. CONCLUSION: The practice of TKD promotes anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity, but not aerobic power, in male adolescents. (+info)
Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. METHODS: One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. RESULTS: A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p< or =0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p< or =0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less. (+info)
Effects of huangqi jianzhong tang on hematological and biochemical parameters in judo athletes.
AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZT) on hematological and biochemical parameters in judo athletes. METHODS: Sixteen male and eight female judo athletes in Hsin-Ming senior high school were randomly and stratified divided into control and experimental group, which received placebo and HQJZT respectively during the five-week training program. The measurement of the hematological and biochemical parameters was performed twice, just before and after the training. The data was analyzed with paired-t test and ANOVA. RESULTS: The values of RBC, Hb, and Hct were obvious decreased after intervention, while the value of GOT, GPT, BUN, and CK was elevated. CONCLUSION: The results indicated the hematological and biochemical changes were caused by the physical training but not the effects of HQJZT. The HQJZT had no adverse effects on the judo athletes in our study. (+info)