(1/523) The Jun kinase cascade is responsible for activating the CD28 response element of the IL-2 promoter: proof of cross-talk with the I kappa B kinase cascade.
Costimulation of TCR/CD3 and CD28 receptors leads to activation of the Jun kinase (JNK) cascade, which plays a key role in T cell activation, including activation of the IL-2 promoter. We demonstrate that the JNK cascade plays a central role in the activation of the CD28 response element (CD28RE) in the IL-2 promoter. This response element is linked to an activating protein-1 (AP-1) site, which functions synergistically with the CD28RE. The role of the JNK cascade in the activation of this composite element is twofold: 1) activation of the AP-1 site through transcriptional activation of c-Jun, and 2) activation of the CD28RE through selective cross-talk with I kappa B kinase-beta (IKK beta). Dominant-negative versions of JNK kinase, c-Jun, and IKK beta interfered In CD3- plus CD28-induced CD28RE/AP-1 luciferase activity in Jurkat cells. In contrast, the dominant-active JNK kinase kinase, MEKK1, induced CD28RE/AP-1 luciferase activity, in parallel with induction of c-Jun and c-Rel binding to this combined promoter site. Dominant-active MEKK1 also induced transfected IKK beta, but not IKK alpha, activity. In contrast to the JNK cascade, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade did not exert an affect on the CD28RE/AP-1 site, but did contribute to activation of the distal NF-AT/AP-1 site. (+info)
(2/523) NSP1 defines a novel family of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase receptors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
As part of a program to further understand the mechanism by which extracellular signals are coordinated and cell-specific outcomes are generated, we have cloned a novel class of related adaptor molecules (NSP1, NSP2, and NSP3) and have characterized in more detail one of the members, NSP1. NSP1 has an Shc-related SH2 domain and a putative proline/serine-rich SH3 interaction domain. Treatment of cells with epidermal growth factor or insulin leads to NSP1 phosphorylation and increased association with a hypophosphorylated adaptor protein, p130(Cas). In contrast, cell contact with fibronectin results in Cas phosphorylation and a transient dissociation of NSP1 from p130(Cas). Increased expression of NSP1 in 293 cells induces activation of JNK1, but not of ERK2. Consistent with this observation, NSP1 increases the activity of an AP-1-containing promoter. Thus, we have described a novel family of adaptor proteins, one of which may be involved in the process by which receptor tyrosine kinase and integrin receptors control the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase pathway. (+info)
(3/523) Positive and negative regulation of IkappaB kinase activity through IKKbeta subunit phosphorylation.
IkappaB [inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)] kinase (IKK) phosphorylates IkappaB inhibitory proteins, causing their degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB, a master activator of inflammatory responses. IKK is composed of three subunits-IKKalpha and IKKbeta, which are highly similar protein kinases, and IKKgamma, a regulatory subunit. In mammalian cells, phosphorylation of two sites at the activation loop of IKKbeta was essential for activation of IKK by tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1. Elimination of equivalent sites in IKKalpha, however, did not interfere with IKK activation. Thus, IKKbeta, not IKKalpha, is the target for proinflammatory stimuli. Once activated, IKKbeta autophosphorylated at a carboxyl-terminal serine cluster. Such phosphorylation decreased IKK activity and may prevent prolonged activation of the inflammatory response. (+info)
(4/523) Differential involvement of MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) in the induction of apoptosis in response to microtubule-targeted drugs versus DNA damaging agents.
MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a 196-kDa enzyme that is involved in the regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and apoptosis. In cells exposed to genotoxic agents including etoposide and cytosine arabinoside, MEKK1 is cleaved at Asp874 by caspases. The cleaved kinase domain of MEKK1, itself, stimulates caspase activity leading to apoptosis. Kinase-inactive MEKK1 expressed in HEK293 cells effectively blocks genotoxin-induced apoptosis. Treatment of cells with taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, did not induce MEKK1 cleavage in cells, and kinase-inactive MEKK1 expression failed to block taxol-induced apoptosis. MEKK1 became activated in HEK293 cells exposed to taxol, but in contrast to etoposide-treatment, taxol failed to increase JNK activity. Taxol treatment of cells, therefore, dissociates MEKK1 activation from the regulation of the JNK pathway. Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 blocked MEKK1 and taxol-induced apoptosis but did not block the caspase-dependent cleavage of MEKK1 in response to etoposide. This indicates Bcl2 inhibition of apoptosis is, therefore, downstream of caspase-dependent MEKK1 cleavage. The results define the involvement of MEKK1 in the induction of apoptosis by genotoxins but not microtubule altering drugs. (+info)
(5/523) The functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and is associated with the augmentation of STAT serine phosphorylation.
IL-12 and IL-2 can stimulate mitogen- or CD3-activated T cells to proliferate, produce IFN-gamma, and kill tumor cells. The magnitude of these functional responses is greatly augmented when T cells are activated by the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. Although peripheral blood T cells are largely unresponsive to these cytokines without prior activation, a small subset of CD8+ T cells (CD8+CD18bright) is strongly activated by the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. In this report we show that the functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 in CD8+CD18bright T cells correlates with the activation of the stress kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal kinase, but not with the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases. The functional synergy between IL-2 and IL-12 is also associated with a prominent increase in STAT1 and STAT3 serine phosphorylation over that observed with IL-12 or IL-2 alone. By contrast, STAT tyrosine phosphorylation is not augmented over that seen with either cytokine alone. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase completely inhibits the serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 induced by IL-12 and IL-2 and abrogates the functional synergy between IL-12 and IL-2 without affecting STAT tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that p38 MAP kinase may play an important role in regulating STAT serine phosphorylation in response to the combination of IL-12 and IL-2. Furthermore, these findings indicate that the optimal activation of T cells by IL-12 and IL-2 may depend on an interaction between the p38 MAP kinase and Janus kinase/STAT signaling pathways. (+info)
(6/523) Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein activates AP-1 through a cellular protein kinase(s).
During human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a rapid increase in AP-1 activity is detected. In this study, activation of transcription from promoters containing AP-1-binding sites by the IE1 protein of HCMV was examined. In transient transfection assays with reporter plasmids, it was found that IE1 strongly induced AP-1-driven transcription. Cells stably expressing IE1 also showed higher levels of AP-1 activity than did control cells. IE1 expression did not raise levels of c-jun and c-fos RNA, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. AP-1 induction by IE1 was blocked efficiently by protein kinase inhibitors in a cell type-dependent manner; for example, by staurosporine in the human microglial cell line U373MG and by H7 in the human promonocytic cell line U937. IE1-driven activation of AP-1 was increased dramatically by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1). The results of this study indicate that IE1 activates AP-1 at the post-transcriptional level and that MEKK1 may play an important role in this process. (+info)
(7/523) Signaling through CD5 involves acidic sphingomyelinase, protein kinase C-zeta, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase.
The CD5 lymphocyte surface glycoprotein is a coreceptor involved in the modulation of Ag-specific receptor-mediated activation and differentiation signals. The molecular basis for its modulatory properties is not yet well understood. In the present study we describe early biochemical events triggered by CD5 stimulation, which include the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC)-dependent activation of acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) in normal and lymphoblastoid T and B cells. The functional coupling of PC-PLC and A-SMase is demonstrated by the abrogation of A-SMase activation by 1) xanthogenate tricyclodecan-9-yl (D609), a selective inhibitor of PC-PLC, and 2) replacement of several C-terminal serine residues (S458, S459, and S461) present in the cytoplasmic tail of CD5 that are known to be critical for PC-PLC activation. Additionally, we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (MAPK kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), but not the NF-kappaB, are downstream events of the CD5 signaling pathway. A-SMase, PKC-zeta, and MAPK family members are key mediators of cell responses as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest and may contribute to CD5-mediated modulation of TCR or BCR signaling. (+info)
(8/523) VEGF activates protein kinase C-dependent, but Ras-independent Raf-MEK-MAP kinase pathway for DNA synthesis in primary endothelial cells.
KDR/FIk-1 tyrosine kinase, one of the two VEGF receptors induces mitogenesis and differentiation of vascular endothelial cells. We have previously reported that a major target molecule of KDR/Flk-1 kinase is PLC-gamma, and that VEGF induces activation of MAP kinase, mainly mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) in the NIH3T3 cells overexpressing KDR/FIk-1 (Takahashi and Shibuya, 1997). However, the signal transduction initiated from VEGF in endothelial cells remains to be elucidated. In primary sinusoidal endothelial cells which showed strictly VEGF-dependent growth, we found that VEGF stimulated the activation of Raf-1-MEK-MAP kinase cascade. To our surprise, an important regulator, Ras was not efficiently activated to a significant level in response to VEGF. Consistent with this, dominant-negative Ras did not block the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinase. On the other hand, PKC-specific inhibitors severely reduced VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of MEK, activation of MAP kinase and subsequent DNA synthesis. A potent PI3 kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin, could not inhibit either of them. These results suggest that in primary endothelial cells, VEGF-induced activation of Raf-MEK-MAP kinase and DNA synthesis are mainly mediated by PKC-dependent pathway, much more than by Ras-dependent or PI3 kinase-dependent pathway. (+info)