(1/486) Mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase kinases 2 and 3 activate nuclear factor-kappaB through IkappaB kinase-alpha and IkappaB kinase-beta.
Recent evidence indicates that nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor critically important for immune and inflammatory responses, is activated by a protein kinase cascade. The essential features of this cascade are that a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) activates an IkappaB kinase (IKK) that site-specifically phosphorylates IkappaB. The IkappaB protein, which ordinarily sequesters NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm, is subsequently degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thereby allowing the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Thus far, only two MAP3Ks, NIK and MEKK1, have been identified that can activate this pathway. We now show that MEKK2 and MEKK3 can in vivo activate IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, induce site-specific IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, and, relatively modestly, activate an NF-kappaB reporter gene. In addition, dominant negative versions of either IKK-alpha or IKK-beta abolish NF-kappaB activation induced by MEKK2 or MEKK3, thereby providing evidence that these IKKs mediate the NF-kappaB-inducing activities of these MEKKs. In contrast, other MAP3Ks, including MEKK4, ASK1, and MLK3, fail to show evidence of activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. We conclude that a distinct subset of MAP3Ks can activate NF-kappaB. (+info)
(2/486) Implication of TNF receptor-I-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation in growth of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma cells: a possible role of a novel death domain protein MADD in TNF-alpha-induced ERK1/2 activation in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
TNF-alpha is a key pathogenic mediator of infectious and inflammatory diseases. HIV infection stimulates and dysregulates the immune system, leading to abnormal production of TNF-alpha. Despite its cytotoxic effect on some tumor cell lines, TNF-alpha functions as a growth stimulator for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a common malignancy in HIV-infected patients. However, signaling pathways linked to TNF-alpha-induced mitogenic responses are not well understood. We found that extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in KS cells were significantly activated by TNF-alpha through tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation. Using neutralizing anti-TNFR-I and TNFR-II mAbs, we have now obtained evidence that TNF-alpha-induced KS cell growth and ERK1/2 activation are mediated exclusively by TNFR-I, not by TNFR-II. A selective inhibitor for ERK1/2 activator kinases, PD98059, profoundly inhibited not only the activation of ERK1/2, but also the TNF-alpha-induced KS cell proliferation. We therefore propose that the TNFR-I-ERK1/2 pathway plays a pivotal role in transmitting to KS cells the mitogenic signals of TNF-alpha. TNFR-I possesses no intrinsic kinase activity, suggesting that TNFR-I-associated proteins may provide a link between TNFR-I and ERK1/2 activation. We found that actinomycin D treatment of KS cells selectively abolished expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD), a novel TNFR-I-associated death domain protein. TNF-alpha failed to induce ERK1/2 activation in the actinomycin D-treated cells. MADD may couple TNFR-I with the ERK1/2 signaling pathway required for KS cell proliferation. (+info)
(3/486) Feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat activates collagenase IV gene expression through AP-1.
Leukemia and lymphoma induced by feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are the commonest forms of illness in domestic cats. These viruses do not contain oncogenes, and the source of their pathogenic activity is not clearly understood. Mechanisms involving proto-oncogene activation subsequent to proviral integration and/or development of recombinant viruses with enhanced replication properties are thought to play an important role in their disease pathogenesis. In addition, the long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of these viruses have been shown to be important determinants for pathogenicity and tissue specificity, by virtue of their ability to interact with various transcription factors. Previously, we have shown that, in the case of Moloney murine leukemia virus, the U3 region of the LTR independently induces transcriptional activation of specific cellular genes through an LTR-generated RNA transcript (S. Y. Choi and D. V. Faller, J. Biol. Chem. 269:19691-19694, 1994; S.-Y. Choi and D. V. Faller, J. Virol. 69:7054-7060, 1995). In this report, we show that the U3 region of exogenous FeLV LTRs can induce transcription from collagenase IV (matrix metalloproteinase 9) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) promoters up to 12-fold. We also show that AP-1 DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity are strongly induced in cells expressing FeLV LTRs and that LTR-specific RNA transcripts are generated in those cells. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and -2) by the LTR is an intermediate step in the FeLV LTR-mediated induction of AP-1 activity. These findings thus suggest that the LTRs of FeLVs can independently activate transcription of specific cellular genes. This LTR-mediated cellular gene transactivation may play an important role in tumorigenesis or preleukemic states and may be a generalizable activity of leukemia-inducing retroviruses. (+info)
(4/486) PKC-dependent activation of p44/p42 MAPKs during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in conscious rabbits.
Using conscious rabbits, we examined the effect of ischemic preconditioning (PC) on p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We found that both isoforms contribute significantly to total MAPK activity in the heart (in-gel kinase assay: p44, 59 +/- 1%; p42, 41 +/- 1%). Ischemic PC (6 cycles of 4-min occlusion/4-min reperfusion) elicited a pronounced increase in total cellular MAPK activity (+89%). This increase, which occurred exclusively in the nuclear fraction, was contributed by both isoforms (in-gel kinase assay: p44, +97%; p42, +210%) and was accompanied by migration of the two proteins from the cytosolic to the nuclear compartment. In control rabbits, MAPK kinase (MEK)1 and MEK2, direct activators of p44 and p42 MAPKs, were located almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction. Ischemic PC induced a marked increase in cytosolic MEK activity (+164%), whereas nuclear MEK activity did not change, indicating that MEK-induced activation of MAPKs occurred in the cytosolic compartment. Activation of MAPKs after ischemic PC was completely blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine. Selective overexpression of PKC-epsilon in adult rabbit cardiomyocytes induced activation of both p44 and p42 MAPKs and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release during simulated ischemia-reperfusion, which was abolished by the MEK inhibitor PD-98059. The results demonstrate that 1) ischemic PC induces a rapid activation of p44 and p42 MAPKs in hearts of conscious rabbits; 2) the mechanism of this phenomenon involves activation of p44 and p42 MAPKs in the cytosol and their subsequent translocation to the nucleus; and 3) it occurs via a PKC-mediated signaling pathway. The in vitro data implicate PKC-epsilon as the specific isoform responsible for PKC-induced MAPK activation and suggest that p44/p42 MAPKs contribute to PKC-epsilon-mediated protection against simulated ischemia. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that p44 and p42 MAPKs may play a role in myocardial adaptations to ischemic stress. (+info)
(5/486) Activated Ki-Ras suppresses 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway in human colon cancer cells.
Although the frequency of activated Ki-ras genes is high in human colorectal tumors, much less is known of activated Ki-ras-mediated signaling pathways. Using gene targeting, we examined HCT116 cells that contain the Gly-13-->Asp mutation of Ki-ras and activated Ki-ras-disrupted clones derived from HCT116. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced immediate early genes, such as c-Jun, c-Fos, and Egr-1 in activated Ki-ras-disrupted clones, whereas c-Jun induction was rare in HCT116. TPA induced both phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (SEK1) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in the activated Ki-ras-disrupted clones but not in HCT116. On the other hand, TPA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was equally induced between HCT116 and the Ki-ras-disrupted clones. Furthermore, TPA-induced SEK1-JNK activation was observed in a DLD-1-derived activated Ki-ras-disrupted clone but not in DLD-1. The TPA-induced SEK1-JNK activation in these disrupted clones was completely inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF109203X (1 microM), but not by another PKC inhibitor, H7 (50 microM), whereas TPA-induced MEK1/2-ERK activation was partially and completely inhibited by GF109203X (1 microM) and H7 (50 microM), respectively. A phosphoinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, did not inhibit the TPA-induced SEK1-JNK activation. Taken together, these results suggest that activated Ki-Ras-mediated signals are involved in the SEK1-JNK pathway through a PKC isotype that is distinct from that involved in MEK1/2-ERK activation in human colon cancer cells and independent of phosphoinositol 3-kinase activation, and the imbalance between ERK and JNK activity caused by activated Ki-Ras may play critical roles in human colorectal tumorigenesis. (+info)
(6/486) Kinase suppressor of Ras forms a multiprotein signaling complex and modulates MEK localization.
Genetic screens for modifiers of activated Ras phenotypes have identified a novel protein, kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), which shares significant sequence homology with Raf family protein kinases. Studies using Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans predict that KSR positively regulates Ras signaling; however, the function of mammalian KSR is not well understood. We show here that two predicted kinase-dead mutants of KSR retain the ability to complement ksr-1 loss-of-function alleles in C. elegans, suggesting that KSR may have physiological, kinase-independent functions. Furthermore, we observe that murine KSR forms a multimolecular signaling complex in human embryonic kidney 293T cells composed of HSP90, HSP70, HSP68, p50(CDC37), MEK1, MEK2, 14-3-3, and several other, unidentified proteins. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of HSP90, decreases the half-life of KSR, suggesting that HSPs may serve to stabilize KSR. Both nematode and mammalian KSRs are capable of binding to MEKs, and three-point mutants of KSR, corresponding to C. elegans loss-of-function alleles, are specifically compromised in MEK binding. KSR did not alter MEK activity or activation. However, KSR-MEK binding shifts the apparent molecular mass of MEK from 44 to >700 kDa, and this results in the appearance of MEK in membrane-associated fractions. Together, these results suggest that KSR may act as a scaffolding protein for the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (+info)
(7/486) Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human monocytes involves the raf-1/MEK1-MEK2/ERK1-ERK2 pathway.
During gram-negative sepsis, human monocytes are triggered to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Several studies have identified signal transduction pathways that are activated by LPS, including activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1 and ERK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38. In this study, the relevance of ERK1 and ERK2 activation for LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by primary human monocytes has been addressed with PD-098059, which specifically blocks activation of MAPK kinase (MEK) by Raf-1. TNF-alpha levels in the monocyte culture supernatant, induced by 10 ng of LPS/ml, were reduced by PD-098059 (50 microM). In addition, PD-098059 also reduced TNF-alpha mRNA expression when cells were stimulated for 1 h with LPS. On the other hand, LPS-induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the monocyte supernatant were only slightly inhibited by PD-098059. Ro 09-2210, a recently identified MEK inhibitor, completely abrogated TNF-alpha levels at nanomolar concentrations. IL-10 levels also were strongly reduced. To show the efficacy of PD-098059 and Ro 09-2210, ERK1 and -2 activation was monitored by Western blotting with an antiserum that recognizes the phosphorylated (i.e., activated) forms of ERK1 and ERK2. Addition of LPS to human monocytes resulted in activation of both ERK1 and ERK2 in a time- and concentration (50% effective concentration between 1 and 10 ng of LPS/ml)-dependent manner. Activation of ERK2 was blocked by PD-098059 (50 microM), whereas ERK1 seemed to be less affected. Ro 09-2210 completely prevented LPS-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation. LPS-induced p38 activation also was prevented by Ro 09-2210. These data further support the view that the ERK signal transduction pathway is causally involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha by human monocytes stimulated with LPS. (+info)
(8/486) Characterization of a Rac1 signaling pathway to cyclin D(1) expression in airway smooth muscle cells.
We examined the importance of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 for cyclin D(1) promoter transcriptional activation in bovine tracheal myocytes. Overexpression of active Rac1 induced transcription from the cyclin D(1) promoter, whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced transcription was inhibited by a dominant-negative allele of Rac1, suggesting that Rac1 functions as an upstream activator of cyclin D(1) in this system. Rac1 forms part of the NADPH oxidase complex that generates reactive oxygen species such as H(2)O(2). PDGF stimulated a substantial increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species, as measured by the fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein-loaded cells, and this was blocked by the glutathione peroxidase mimetic ebselen. Pretreatment with ebselen, catalase, and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium each attenuated PDGF- and Rac1-mediated cyclin D(1) promoter activation, while having no effect on the induction of cyclin D(1) by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase-1 (MEK1), the upstream activator of ERKs. Antioxidant treatment also inhibited PDGF-induced cyclin D(1) protein expression and DNA synthesis. Overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of p67(phox), a component of NADPH oxidase which interacts with Rac1, attenuated PDGF-induced cyclin D(1) promoter activity, whereas overexpression of the wild-type p67 did not. Finally, Rac1 was neither required nor sufficient for ERK activation. Taken together, these data suggest a model by which two distinct signaling pathways, the ERK and Rac1 pathways, positively regulate cyclin D(1) and smooth muscle growth. (+info)