Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water.
Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction. (+info)
Potential for reduction of odorous compounds in swine manure through diet modification.
Recent public concern about air pollution from pork production units has prompted more research to develop methods to reduce and control odors. Masking agents, enzymes and bacterial preparations, feed additives, chemicals, oxidation processes, air scrubbers, biofilters, and new ventilation systems have been studied. Research relating the effects of the swine diet on manure odors has been scarce. Introducing feed additives to bind ammonia, change digesta pH, affect specific enzyme activity, and mask odors has been either costly or not consistently successful. Recent research emphasis has focused on manipulating the diet 1) to increase the nutrient utilization of the diet to reduce excretion products, 2) to enhance microbial metabolism in the lower digestive tract to reduce excretion of odor-causing compounds, and 3) to change the physical characteristics of urine and feces to reduce odor emissions. Primary odor-causing compounds evolve from excess degradable proteins and lack of specific fermentable carbohydrates during microbial fermentation. Reductions in ammonia emissions by 28 to 79% through diet modifications have been reported. Limited research on reduction of other odorous volatile organic compounds through diet modifications is promising. Use of synthetic amino acids with reduced intact protein levels in diets significantly reduces nitrogen excretions and odor production. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides and specific oligosaccharides further alters the pathway of nitrogen excretion and reduces odor emission. Continued nutritional and microbial research to incorporate protein degradation products, especially sulfur-containing organics, with fermentable carbohydrates in the lower gastrointestinal tract of pigs will further control odors from manure. (+info)
Limit-feeding corn as an alternative to hay reduces manure and nutrient output by Holstein cows.
Efficiency of limit-feeding a whole shelled corn-based diet as an alternative to a conventional forage-based diet for nonlactating dairy cattle was determined. Twelve nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (initial BW 642+/-50 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Nutrient digestibility, excretion of DM, N, and P, performance of cows, and feed costs were measured. Both diets were formulated to provide equal daily intakes of NE1, protein, vitamins, and minerals, according to National Research Council recommendations. Dry matter intake was restricted by 30% for cows fed the high-corn diet compared with the high-forage diet (6.8 vs 9.6 kg/ d, respectively); therefore, concentrations of nutrients in the high-corn diet were increased to compensate for decreased DMI. Diets were fed once daily, and cows had unlimited access to fresh water. After a 28-d adaptation period, cows were placed in metabolism stalls for a 6-d total collection of feces and urine. The limit-fed, high-corn diet had a 15% greater DM digestibility than the high-forage diet. A 29% decrease in DMI for the high-corn diet vs the high-forage diet resulted in a 40% decrease in fecal DM excretion. Starch digestibility and digestibility of whole corn kernels were not affected (P > or = .62) by diet. Despite similar N intakes, total N excretion was 22% greater (P < .01) for cows fed the high-forage diet than for those limit-fed the high-grain diet. Cow weight and condition score change did not differ (P > .10) between diets. Feed costs were reduced by $.38/d with the high-corn diet vs the high-forage diet. Limit-feeding a corn-based diet is an economically and nutritionally viable alternative to forage-based diets for nonlactating Holstein cows. (+info)
Conservation of nitrogen in cattle feedlot waste with urease inhibitors.
Feedlot cattle normally retain less than 20% of their dietary nitrogen intake. Sixty to 80% of the nitrogen excreted is normally lost through volatilization of ammonia, which is primarily generated from urea. This loss of ammonia nitrogen pollutes the environment and creates an unfavorable ratio of nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) in the waste for crop growth. Two urease inhibitors, cyclohexylphosphoric triamide (CHPT) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated for their ability to reduce the rate of urea hydrolysis in beef cattle feedlot pens. Initially, a total of six pens were used, two pens per treatment, with approximately 70 cattle per pen, and a single topical application of CHPT or NBPT at 20 mg/kg of manure. Essentially no urea was found in untreated pens. However, with CHPT treatment, 2 g of urea/kg of dry manure accumulated by d 4, and all gradually disappeared by d 11; NBPT conserved 3 and 3.5 g of urea/kg by d 4 and 9, respectively, and it had disappeared by d 14 (treatment [trt] x day, P = .003). A second study involved application of NBPT weekly for 6 wk. This caused urea to accumulate to a peak concentration of 17 g/kg of manure by d 30 (trt x day2, P = .001). Once the treatment was stopped the urea concentration began to decrease. When the NBPT was applied weekly, the concentration of ammonia in the waste was less for the treated pens (trt x day, P = .01), the total nitrogen was greater (trt x day, P = .04), pH tended to be lower (trt x day, P = .10), and the total volatile acids were not different (trt x day, P = .51) from untreated pens. We concluded that urease inhibitors could be used to control ammonia emissions from animal wastes, prevent environmental damage, and produce a more balanced (N:P) fertilizer from manure. (+info)
Effects of anaerobic digestion and additives to effluent or cattle feed on odor and odorant concentrations.
Odor intensity (5,437 observations), determined by human panelists (100 different panelists over the course of the experiment), and a number of chemical odorant concentrations were determined for manure-related samples (326) obtained from effluents from conventional stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-film anaerobic digesters, effluents to which commercial additives or KMnO4 or H2O2 were added, and feces, urine, and mixed manure from cows fed a control or additive-containing diet. Mostly, samples were held in stoppered, Erlenmeyer flasks for 3 d at room temperature before evaluation by panelists and with chemical analyses, but shorter holding times also were tested. Anaerobic digestion reduced odor intensity linearly with increasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) up to 20 d; fixed-film digestion with 1.5- or 2.3-d HRT reduced odor intensity similarly to that observed with 10-d HRT in CSTR. Addition of commercial products and chemicals altered some odorant concentrations (e.g., ammonia) but did not reduce odor intensity; some products increased odor intensity. Addition of a commercial yeast-based product to a dairy cow diet had no detectable effect. The cow diet study showed that fresh urine and feces alone were less odorous than a mixed combination (manure). Fresh manure was less odorous than manure held for 3 d. Total phenol was the odorant most highly correlated with odor intensity. Individual and total volatile fatty acids also contributed. Ammonia did not seem to be a major contributor to odor in this data set. (+info)
Method for detection and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in feces, manures, and soils.
Eight concentration and purification methods were evaluated to determine percentages of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from calf feces. The NaCl flotation method generally resulted in the highest percentages of recovery. Based on the percentages of recovery, the amounts of fecal debris in the final oocyst preparations, the relatively short processing time (<3 h), and the low expense, the NaCl flotation method was chosen for further evaluation. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using oocyst concentrations of 25, 50, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) oocysts g of bovine feces-1. The percentages of recovery ranged from 10.8% (25 oocysts g-1) to 17.0% (10(4) oocysts g-1) (r2 = 0.996). A conservative estimate of the detection limit for bovine feces is ca. 30 oocysts g of feces-1. Percentages of recovery were determined for six different types of animal feces (cow, horse, pig, sheep, deer, and chicken feces) at a single oocyst concentration (10(4) oocysts g-1). The percentages of recovery were highest for bovine feces (17. 0%) and lowest for chicken feces (3.2%). Percentages of recovery were determined for bovine manure after 3 to 7 days of storage. The percentages of recovery ranged from 1.9 to 3.5% depending on the oocyst concentration, the time of storage, and the dispersing solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from soils were evaluated by using different flotation solutions (NaCl, cold sucrose, ZnSO4), different dispersing solutions (Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tris plus Tween 80), different dispersion techniques (magnetic stirring, sonication, blending), and different dispersion times (5, 15, and 30 min). Twenty-five-gram soil samples were used to reduce the spatial variability. The highest percentages of recovery were obtained when we used 50 mM Tris-0.5% Tween 80 as the dispersing solution, dispersion for 15 min by stirring, and saturated NaCl as the flotation solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from freshly spiked sandy loam, silty clay loam, and clay loam soils were ca. 12 to 18, 8, and 6%, respectively. The theoretical detection limits were ca. 1 to 2 oocysts g of soil-1 depending on the soil type. The percentages of recovery without dispersant (distilled H2O or phosphate-buffered saline) were less than 0.1%, which indicated that oocysts adhere to soil particles. The percentages of recovery decreased with storage time, although the addition of dispersant (Tris-Tween 80) before storage appeared to partially prevent adhesion. These data indicate that the NaCl flotation method is suitable for routine detection and enumeration of oocysts from feces, manures, soils, or soil-manure mixtures. (+info)
Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between use of biomass cooking fuels (wood or dung) and prevalence of active tuberculosis in India. METHODS: The analysis is based on 260,162 persons age 20 and over in India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. Logistic regression is used to estimate the effects of biomass fuel use on prevalence of active tuberculosis, as reported by household heads, after controlling for a number of potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Persons living in households that primarily use biomass for cooking fuel have substantially higher prevalence of active tuberculosis than persons living in households that use cleaner fuels (odds ratio [OR] = 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82-4. 50). This effect is reduced somewhat when availability of a separate kitchen, house type, indoor crowding, age, gender, urban or rural residence, education, religion, caste or tribe, and geographic region are statistically controlled (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.98-3.37). Fuel type also has a large effect when the analysis is done separately for men (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.79-3.39) and women (OR = 2. 74; 95% CI = 1.86-4.05) and separately for urban areas (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.61-3.23) and rural areas (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.74-4.03). The analysis also indicates that, among persons age 20 years and over, 51% of the prevalence of active tuberculosis is attributable to cooking smoke. CONCLUSIONS: Results strongly suggest that use of biomass fuels for cooking substantially increases the risk of tuberculosis in India. (+info)
Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization.
Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S. wolfei LYB was closely related to S. wolfei subsp. wolfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, of which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas. (+info)