Preservation of postural control of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in patients with reflux oesophagitis.
INTRODUCTION: In normal subjects, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) and gas reflux during belching are suppressed in the supine position. Supine reflux, however, is a feature of reflux disease. AIMS: To investigate whether postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is impaired in patients with reflux disease. PATIENTS: Ten patients with erosive oesophagitis. METHODS: Oesophageal manometry was performed during gastric distension with 750 ml carbon dioxide. Measurements were made for 10 minutes before and after distension in both sitting and supine positions. RESULTS: In the sitting position gastric distension substantially increased the rate of gas reflux (median (interquartile range)), as evidenced by increases in oesophageal common cavities from 1 (0-1)/10 min to 7 (5-10)/10 min and TLOSRs from 1 (1-1.5)/10 min to 6 (2.5-8)/10 min. However, this effect was suppressed in the supine position in all but one patient (TLOSRs 0 (0)/10 min to 1 (0-4.5)/10 min, common cavities 0 (0)/10 min to 0.5 (0-2)/10 min). CONCLUSIONS: Postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is generally preserved in reflux disease. (+info)
The effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure.
BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the gastro-oesophageal junction were marked with endoscopically placed clips. Axial and radial characteristics of the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone were mapped relative to the hiatus and clips during concurrent fluoroscopy and manometry. Responses to inspiration and abdominal compression were also analysed. RESULTS: In normal individuals the squamocolumnar junction was 0.5 cm below the hiatus and the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone extended 1.1 cm distal to that. In those with hiatus hernia, the gastro-oesophageal junction high pressure zone had two discrete segments, one proximal to the squamocolumnar junction and one distal, attributable to the extrinsic compression within the hiatal canal. Inspiration and abdominal compression mainly augmented the distal one. Simulation of hernia reduction by algebraically summing the proximal segment pressures with the hiatal canal pressures restored normal maximal pressure, radial asymmetry, and dynamic responses of the gastro-oesophageal junction. CONCLUSIONS: Hiatus hernia reduces lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and alters its dynamic responsiveness by spatially separating pressure components derived from the intrinsic lower oesophageal sphincter and the extrinsic compression of the oesophagus within the hiatal canal. (+info)
Erythromycin enhances early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach as an esophageal substitute.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early postoperative administration of erythromycin accelerates the spontaneous motor recovery process after elevation of the denervated whole stomach up to the neck. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Spontaneous motor recovery after gastric denervation is a slow process that progressively takes place over years. METHODS: Erythromycin was administered as follows: continuous intravenous (i.v.) perfusion until postoperative day 10 in ten whole stomach (WS) patients at a dose of either 1 g (n = 5) or 2 g (n = 5) per day; oral intake at a dose of 1 g/day during 1.5 to 8 months after surgery in 11 WS patients, followed in 7 of them by discontinuation of the drug during 2 to 4 weeks. Gastric motility was assessed with intraluminal perfused catheters in these 21 patients, in 23 WS patients not receiving erythromycin, and in 11 healthy volunteers. A motility index was established by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of >9 mmHg contractions by the time of recording. RESULTS: The motility index after IV or oral administration of erythromycin at and after surgery was significantly higher than that without erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.0090; i.v., 2 g: p = 0.0090; oral, 1 g: p = 0.0017). It was similar to that in healthy volunteers (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2818; oral, 1 g: p = 0.7179) and to that in WS patients with >3 years of follow-up who never received erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2206; oral, 1 g: p = 0.8326). The motility index after discontinuation of the drug was similar or superior to that recorded under medication in four patients who did not experience any modification of their alimentary comfort, whereas it dropped dramatically parallel to deterioration of the alimentary comfort in three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach pulled up to the neck under either i.v. or oral erythromycin is similar to that recovered spontaneously beyond 3 years of follow-up. In some patients, this booster effect persists after discontinuation of the drug. (+info)
A manometric assessment of oesophagogastrostomy.
Intraluminal pressures were recorded in 14 patients who had undergone oesophagogastrectomy. Seven of these had a mid-thoracic and seven a high cervical oesophagogastrostomy. The incidence of postoperative reflux complications in each group was noted. No pressure gradient across the anastomosis was detected in any patient but the upper oesophageal sphincter was shown to be retained as a functioning unit in all cases. It is considered that the thoracic anastomosis provides no demonstrable barrier to reflux. In addition, a high cervical oesophagogastrostomy does not adversely affect the upper oesophageal sphincter. The wider application of this latter procedure may be associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative reflux complications. (+info)
Effect of motilin on the lower oesophageal sphincter.
The effect of motilin on lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure has been studied in unanesthetised specially trained dogs using an infusion manometric technique. Motilin produced significant rises in resting pressure and contractions of the LES after doses ranging from 0-009 mug/kg to 0-05 mug/kg. Doses greater than 0-05 mug/kg resulted in repetitive high amplitude contractions. Atropine 30 mug/kg completely abolished the effect of the lower doses of motilin. Higher doses of motilin in atropinised dogs still caused a small rise in baseline pressure and contractile activity still appeared. Hexamethonium 2 mg/kg resulted in both a diminished rise in LES pressure and the disappearance of contractions after motilin. Hexamethonium and atropine together completely abolished the LES response to motilin. We conclude that motilin increases LES pressure by acting on preganglionic cholinergic neurones to release acetylcholine which excites other cholinergic neurones supplying the circular muscle of the LES. (+info)
Validation of a novel luminal flow velocimeter with video fluoroscopy and manometry in the human esophagus.
There is currently no ideal method for concurrently assessing intraluminal pressures and flows in humans with high temporal resolution. We have developed and assessed the performance of a novel fiber-optic laser-Doppler velocimeter, mounted in a multichannel manometric assembly. Velocimeter recordings were compared with concurrent fluoroscopy and manometry following 50 barium swallows in healthy subjects. During these swallows, the velocimeter sensor was situated in either the proximal (24 swallows) or the distal (26 swallows) esophagus. It signaled intraluminal flow following 46 of 50 swallows. A greater mean number of deflections were recorded in the distal compared with the proximal esophagus (4. 3 vs. 2.4, P = 0.001). The maximal flow velocity recorded did not differ between the proximal and distal esophagus (76.7 vs. 73.8 mm/s). No velocimeter signals commenced after fluoroscopic lumen occlusion. The velocimeter signals were closely temporally related to fluoroscopic barium flow. Upward catheter movement on swallowing sometimes appeared to cause a velocimeter signal. Manometrically "normal" swallows were no different from "abnormal" swallows in the number and velocity of deflections recorded by the velocimeter. This novel instrument measures intraluminal flow velocity and pressures concurrently, thus enabling direct study of pressure-flow relationships. Flow patterns differed between the proximal and distal esophagus. (+info)
Cholinergic blockade inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux and transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation through a central mechanism.
BACKGROUND: Atropine, an anticholinergic agent with central and peripheral actions, reduces gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in normal subjects and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) by inhibiting the frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR). AIMS: To compare the effect of methscopolamine bromide (MSB), a peripherally acting anticholinergic agent, with atropine on the rate and mechanism of GOR in patients with GORD. METHODS: Oesophageal motility and pH were recorded for 120 minutes in 10 patients with GORD who were studied on three separate occasions. For the first two recording periods, either atropine (15 microg/kg bolus, 4 microg/kg/h infusion) or saline were infused intravenously. MSB (5 mg orally, four times daily) was given for three days prior to the third recording period. RESULTS: Atropine significantly reduced basal LOS pressure (12.6 (0.17) mm Hg to 7.9 (0.17) mm Hg), and the number of TLOSR (8.1 (0.56) to 2.8 (0. 55)) and reflux episodes (7.0 (0.63) to 2.0 (0.43)) (p<0.005 for all comparisons). MSB reduced basal LOS pressure (12.6 (0.17) to 8.7 (0. 15) mm Hg, p<0.005), but had no effect on the frequency of TLOSR (8. 1 (0.56) to 7.5 (0.59)) and reflux episodes (7.0 (0.63) to 4.9 (0. 60)) (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: In contrast to atropine, MSB has no effect on the rate of TLOSR or GOR in patients with GORD. Atropine induced inhibition of TLOSR and GOR is most likely mediated through a central cholinergic blockade. (+info)
Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence.
BACKGROUND: Perception of, and adaptation of the rectum to, distension probably play an important role in the maintenance of continence, but perception studies in faecal incontinence provide controversial conclusions possibly related to methodological biases. In order to better understand perception disorders, the aim of this study was to analyse anorectal adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in subjects with incontinence. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between June 95 and December 97, 97 consecutive patients (nine men and 88 women, mean (SEM) age 55 (1) years) suffering from incontinence were evaluated and compared with 15 healthy volunteers (four men and 11 women, mean age 48 (3) years). The patients were classified into three groups according to their perception status to rectal isobaric distensions (impaired, 22; normal, 61; enhanced, 14). Anal and rectal adaptations to increasing rectal pressure were analysed using a model of rectal isobaric distension. RESULTS: The four groups did not differ with respect to age, parity, or sex ratio. Magnitude of incontinence, prevalence of pelvic disorders, and sphincter defects were similar in the incontinent groups. When compared with healthy controls, anal pressure and rectal adaptation to distension were decreased in incontinent patients. When compared with incontinent patients with normal perception, patients with enhanced perception experienced similar rectal adaptation but had reduced anal pressure. In contrast, patients with impaired perception showed considerably decreased rectal adaptation but had similar anal pressure. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sensations during rectal distension are observed in one third of subjects suffering from incontinence. These abnormalities may reflect hyperreactivity or neuropathological damage of the rectal wall. (+info)