Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IA (phosphomannomutase-deficiency).
The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein or CDG syndromes (OMIM 212065) are a recently delineated group of genetic, multisystem diseases with variable dysmorphic features. The known CDG syndromes are characterized by a partial deficiency of the N-linked glycans of secretory glycoproteins, lysosomal enzymes, and probably also membranous glycoproteins. Due to the deficiency of terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid, the glycan changes can be observed in serum transferrin or other glycoproteins using isoelectrofocusing with immunofixation as the most widely used diagnostic technique. Most patients show a serum sialotransferrin pattern characterized by increased di- and asialotransferrin bands (type I pattern). The majority of patients with type I are phosphomannomutase deficient (type IA), while in a few other patients, deficiencies of phosphomannose isomerase (type IB) or endoplasmic reticulum glucosyltransferase (type IC) have been demonstrated. This review is an update on CDG syndrome type IA. (+info)
Molecular basis of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes type I with normal phosphomannomutase activity.
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGS) are inherited disorders in glycosylation. Isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin is used as a biochemical indicator of CDGS; however, this technique cannot diagnose the molecular defect. Even though phosphomannomutase (PMM) deficiency accounts for the great majority of known CDGS cases (CDGS type Ia), newly discovered cases have significantly different clinical presentations than the PMM-deficient patients. These differences arise from other defects affecting the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi compartment. The most notable is the loss of phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) (CDGS type Ib). It causes severe hypoglycemia, protein-losing enteropathy, vomiting, diarrhea, and congenital hepatic fibrosis. In contrast to PMM-deficiency, there is no developmental delay nor neuropathy. Most symptoms in the PMI-deficient patients can be successfully treated with dietary mannose supplements. Another defect is the lack of glucosylation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor. The clinical features of this form of CDGS are milder, but similar to, PMM-deficient patients. Yeast genetic and biochemical techniques were critical in unraveling these disorders since many of the defective genes were known in yeast and corresponding mutants were available for complementation. Yeast strains carrying mutations in the homologous genes are likely to provide conclusive identification of the primary defects in novel CDGS types that affect the synthesis and transfer of precursor oligosaccharides. (+info)
Environmental heterogeneity and balancing selection in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides.
The northern acorn barnacle Semibalans banlanoides occupies several intertidal microhabitats which vary greatly in their degree of physical stress. This environmental heterogeneity creates distinct selection regimes which can maintain genetic variation in natural populations. Despite considerable attention placed on the link between spatial variation in fitness and balancing selection at specific loci, experimental manipulations and fitness estimates for molecular polymorphisms have rarely been conducted in the wild. The aim of this transplant experiment was to manipulate the level of physical stress experienced by a cohort of barnacles in the field and then investigate the spatial variation in fitness for genotypes at three loci: two candidate allozymes and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The viability of mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) genotypes was dependent on the level of physical stress experienced in the various treatments; alternative homozygotes were favoured in alternative high stress-low stress environments. In contrast, the fitness of genotypes at other loci was equivalent among treatments and unaffected by the manipulation. Evaluated in the light of balancing selection models, these data indicate that the presence of multiple environmental niches is sufficient to promote a stable Mpi polymorphism in barnacle populations and that allelic variation at this locus reflects the process of adaptation to the heterogeneous intertidal landscape. (+info)
Aedes aegypti in Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia): isoenzyme differentiation in the mosquito population according to human population density.
Genetic differences at five polymorphic isoenzyme loci were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis for 28 Aedes aegypti samples. Considerable (i.e., high Fst values) and significant (i.e., P values >10(-4)) geographic differences were found. Differences in Ae. aegypti genetic structure were related to human population densities and to particularities in mosquito ecotopes in both Tahiti and Moorea islands. In highly urbanized areas (i.e., the Papeete agglomeration), mosquitoes were highly structured. Recurrent extinction events consecutive to insecticidal treatments during dengue outbreaks tend to differentiate mosquito populations. In less populated zones (i.e., the east coast of Moorea and Tahiti), differences in ecotope characteristics could explain the lack of differentiation among mosquitoes from rural environments such as the east coast of Tahiti where natural breeding sites predominate. When the lowest populated zones such as Tahiti Iti and the west coast of Moorea are compared, mosquito are less differentiated in Moorea. These results will be discussed in relation to the recent findings of variation in mosquito infection rates for dengue-2 virus. (+info)
Mutations in multidrug efflux homologs, sugar isomerases, and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes differentially elevate activity of the sigma(X) and sigma(W) factors in Bacillus subtilis.
The sigma(X) and sigma(W) extracytoplasmic function sigma factors regulate more than 40 genes in Bacillus subtilis. sigma(W) activates genes which function in detoxification and the production of antimicrobial compounds, while sigma(X) activates functions that modify the cell envelope. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify loci which negatively regulate sigma(W) or sigma(X) as judged by up-regulation from the autoregulatory promoter site P(W) or P(X). Fourteen insertions that activate P(W) were identified. The largest class of insertions are likely to affect transport. These include insertions in genes encoding two multidrug efflux protein homologs (yqgE and yulE), a component of the oligopeptide uptake system (oppA), and two transmembrane proteins with weak similarity to transporters (yhdP and yueF). Expression from P(W) is also elevated as a result of inactivation of at least one member of the sigma(W) regulon (ysdB), an ArsR homolog (yvbA), a predicted rhamnose isomerase (yulE), and a gene (pksR) implicated in synthesis of difficidin, a polyketide antibiotic. In a parallel screen, we identified seven insertions that up-regulate P(X). Remarkably, these insertions were in functionally similar genes, including a multidrug efflux homolog (yitG), a mannose-6-phosphate isomerase gene (yjdE), and loci involved in antibiotic synthesis (srfAB and possibly yogA and yngK). Significantly, most insertions that activate P(W) have little or no effect on P(X), and conversely, insertions that activate P(X) have no effect on P(W). This suggests that these two regulons respond to distinct sets of molecular signals which may include toxic molecules which are exported, cell density signals, and antimicrobial compounds. (+info)
The role of phosphomannose isomerase in Leishmania mexicana glycoconjugate synthesis and virulence.
Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of fructose 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of activated mannose donors required for the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates. Leishmania species synthesize copious amounts of mannose-containing glycolipids and glycoproteins, which are involved in virulence of these parasitic protozoa. To investigate the role of PMI for parasite glycoconjugate synthesis, we have cloned the PMI gene (lmexpmi) from Leishmania mexicana, generated gene deletion mutants (Delta lmexpmi), and analyzed their phenotype. Delta lmexpmi mutants lack completely the high PMI activity found in wild type parasites, but are, in contrast to fungi, able to grow in media deficient for free mannose. The mutants are unable to synthesize phosphoglycan repeats [-6-Gal beta 1-4Man alpha 1-PO(4)-] and mannose-containing glycoinositolphospholipids, and the surface expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored dominant surface glycoprotein leishmanolysin is strongly decreased, unless the parasite growth medium is supplemented with mannose. The Delta lmexpmi mutant is attenuated in infections of macrophages in vitro and of mice, suggesting that PMI may be a target for anti-Leishmania drug development. L. mexicana Delta lmexpmi provides the first conditional mannose-controlled system for parasite glycoconjugate assembly with potential applications for the investigation of their biosynthesis, intracellular sorting, and function. (+info)
Mannose phosphate isomerase isoenzymes in Plutella xylostella support common genetic bases of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Llpidopteran species.
A strong correlation between two mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI) isoenzymes and resistance to Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis has been found in a Plutella xylostella population. MPI linkage to Cry1A resistance had previously been reported for a Heliothis virescens population. The fact that the two populations share similar biochemical, genetic, and cross-resistance profiles of resistance suggests the occurrence of homologous resistance loci in both species. (+info)
Molecular evolution of the GDP-mannose pathway genes (manB and manC) in Salmonella enterica.
The evolutionary history of the GDP-mannose pathway in Salmonella enterica was studied via sequencing manB and manC genes from 13 representative strains for O antigens containing mannose and/or sugar derivatives of GDP-D-mannose. In addition, colanic acid (CA) manB and manC genes were sequenced from selected strains, as the basis for a detailed comparison. Interestingly, including the eight previously characterized O antigen gene clusters, 12 of the 21 S. enterica strains studied in total (each representing a different O antigen structure) possess a manB gene which displays DNA identity, ranging from 93 to 99%, to the CA manB gene of S. enterica LT2. Furthermore, the CA-like manB genes (as well as the CA manB and manC genes) display subspecies specificity, and the CA and CA-like manB genes (for individual strains) appear to be evolving in concert via gene conversion events. In comparison, the manC genes were generally not CA-like, a situation also apparent in Escherichia coli,and therefore most strongly reflected the evolutionary history of the S. enterica O antigen GDP-mannose pathway. It appears that, in relatively recent times, gene capture from a distant source has occurred infrequently, and that groups of manB and manC genes have been maintained and are continuing to evolve within S. enterica and more closely related species. (+info)