(1/14) Metabolic characterization of Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase using in vivo 13C-NMR.
The metabolism of glucose by nongrowing cells of Lactococcus lactis strain FI7851, constructed from the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 by disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene [Gasson, M.J., Benson, K., Swindel, S. & Griffin, H. (1996) Lait 76, 33-40] was studied in a noninvasive manner by 13C-NMR. The kinetics of the build-up and consumption of the pools of intracellular intermediates mannitol 1-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and phosphoenolpyruvate as well as the utilization of [1-13C]glucose and formation of products (lactate, acetate, mannitol, ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol) were monitored in vivo with a time resolution of 30 s. The metabolism of glucose by the parental wild-type strain was also examined for comparison. A clear shift from typical homolactic fermentation (parental strain) to a mixed acid fermentation (lactate dehdydrogenase deficient; LDHd strain) was observed. Furthermore, high levels of mannitol were transiently produced and metabolized once glucose was depleted. Mannitol 1-phosphate accumulated intracellularly up to 76 mM concentration. Mannitol was formed from fructose 6-phosphate by the combined action of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase. The results show that the formation of mannitol 1-phosphate by the LDHd strain during glucose catabolism is a consequence of impairment in NADH oxidation caused by a highly reduced LDH activity, the transient production of mannitol 1-phosphate serving as a regeneration pathway for NAD+ regeneration. Oxygen availability caused a drastic change in the pattern of intermediates and end-products, reinforcing the key-role of the fulfilment of the redox balance. The flux control coefficients for the step catalysed by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase were calculated and the implications in the design of metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. (+info)
(2/14) Mannitol 1-phosphate metabolism is required for sporulation in planta of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum.
An expressed sequence tag encoding a putative mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Mpd1) has been characterized from the fungal wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum. Mpd1 was disrupted by insertional mutagenesis, and the resulting mpd1 strains lacked all detectable NAD-linked mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (EC 126.96.36.199). The growth rates, sporulation, and spore viability of the mutant strains in vitro were not significantly different from the wild type. The viability of the mpd1 spores when subjected to heat stress was comparable to wild type. Characterization of the sugar alcohol content by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that, when grown on glucose, the mutant strains contained significantly less mannitol, less arabitol, but more trehalose than the wild-type strains. The mannitol content of fructose-grown cultures was normal. No secreted mannitol could be detected in wild type or mutants. Pathogenicity assays revealed the disruption of Mpd1 did not affect lesion development, however the mutants were unable to sporulate. These results throw new light on the role of mannitol in fungal plant interactions, suggesting a role in metabolic and redox regulation during the critical process of sporulation on senescing leaf material. (+info)
(3/14) High resolution reaction intermediates of rabbit muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase: substrate cleavage and induced fit.
Crystal structures were determined to 1.8 A resolution of the glycolytic enzyme fructose-1,6-bis(phosphate) aldolase trapped in complex with its substrate and a competitive inhibitor, mannitol-1,6-bis(phosphate). The enzyme substrate complex corresponded to the postulated Schiff base intermediate and has reaction geometry consistent with incipient C3-C4 bond cleavage catalyzed Glu-187, which is adjacent by to the Schiff base forming Lys-229. Atom arrangement about the cleaved bond in the reaction intermediate mimics a pericyclic transition state occurring in nonenzymatic aldol condensations. Lys-146 hydrogen-bonds the substrate C4 hydroxyl and assists substrate cleavage by stabilizing the developing negative charge on the C4 hydroxyl during proton abstraction. Mannitol-1,6-bis(phosphate) forms a noncovalent complex in the active site whose binding geometry mimics the covalent carbinolamine precursor. Glu-187 hydrogen-bonds the C2 hydroxyl of the inhibitor in the enzyme complex, substantiating a proton transfer role by Glu-187 in catalyzing the conversion of the carbinolamine intermediate to Schiff base. Modeling of the acyclic substrate configuration into the active site shows Glu-187, in acid form, hydrogen-bonding both substrate C2 carbonyl and C4 hydroxyl, thereby aligning the substrate ketose for nucleophilic attack by Lys-229. The multifunctional role of Glu-187 epitomizes a canonical mechanistic feature conserved in Schiff base-forming aldolases catalyzing carbohydrate metabolism. Trapping of tagatose-1,6-bis(phosphate), a diastereoisomer of fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate), displayed stereospecific discrimination and reduced ketohexose binding specificity. Each ligand induces homologous conformational changes in two adjacent alpha-helical regions that promote phosphate binding in the active site. (+info)
(4/14) Effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism: utilization of lactate in Staphylococcus aureus as revealed by in vivo NMR studies.
(5/14) HPr/HPr-P phosphoryl exchange reaction catalyzed by the mannitol specific enzyme II of the bacterial phosphotransferase system.
The mannitol specific Enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli catalyzes an exchange reaction in which a phosphoryl moiety is transferred from one molecule of the heat stable phosphocarrier protein HPr to another. An assay was developed for measuring this reaction. Unlabeled phospho-HPr and 125I-labeled free HPr were incubated together in the presence of Enzyme IImtl, and production of 125I-labeled phospho-HPr was measured. The reaction was concentration-dependent with respect to Enzyme IImtl and did not occur in its absence. The reaction occurred in the absence of Mg2+ in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. Treatment of Enzyme IImtl with the histidyl reagent diethylpyrocarbonate inactivated it with respect to the exchange reaction. Levels of N-ethylmaleimide which inactivate Enzyme IImtl with respect to both P-enolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of mannitol and mannitol/mannitol-1-P transphosphorylation did not affect its activity in the exchange reaction; however, treatment with another sulfhydryl reagent, p-chloromercuribenzoate, resulted in partial inactivation. The pH optimum for the Enzyme IImtl-catalyzed exchange reaction was about 7.5. Enzyme I and the glucose specific Enzyme III, two other E. coli phosphotransferase system proteins which, like Enzyme IImtl, interact directly with HPr, were also shown to catalyze 125I-HPr/HPr-P phosphoryl exchange. (+info)
(6/14) Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Chemical properties and binding of substrates.
Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity, and some chemical and physical properties were examined. The isoelectric point is 4.19. Amino acid analysis and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in presence of SDS indicate a subunit Mr of about 22,000, whereas gel filtration and electrophoresis of the native enzyme indicate an Mr of 45,000. Thus the enzyme is a dimer. Amino acid analysis showed cysteine, tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan to be present in low quantities, one, three, four and four residues per subunit respectively. The zinc content is not significant to activity. The enzyme is inactivated (greater than 99%) by reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) with the single thiol group; the inactivation rate depends hyperbolically on reagent concentration, indicating non-covalent binding of the reagent before covalent modification. The pH-dependence indicated a pKa greater than 10.5 for the thiol group. Coenzymes (NAD+ and NADH) at saturating concentrations protect completely against reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate), and substrates (mannitol 1-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate) protect strongly but not completely. These results suggest that the thiol group is near the catalytic site, and indicate that substrates as well as coenzymes bind to free enzyme. Dissociation constants were determined from these protective effects: 0.6 +/- 0.1 microM for NADH, 0.2 +/- 0.03 mM for NAD+, 9 +/- 3 microM for mannitol 1-phosphate, 0.06 +/- 0.03 mM for fructose 6-phosphate. The binding order for reaction thus may be random for mannitol 1-phosphate oxidation, though ordered for fructose 6-phosphate reduction. Coenzyme and substrate binding in the E X NADH-mannitol 1-phosphate complex is weaker than in the binary complexes, though in the E X NADH+-fructose 6-phosphate complex binding is stronger. (+info)
(7/14) Conversion of D-mannitol to D-ribose: a newly discovered pathway in Escherichia coli.
A mutant (mtlD) strain of Escherichia coli unable to oxidize mannitol-1-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate was used to study the fate of mannitol-1-phosphate. D-[1-14C]mannitol entered the cells via the phosphotransferase system and was phosphorylated equally at carbon 1 or 6. The label disappeared gradually from the mannitol-1-phosphate pool, and some 60% of the 14C was recovered in nucleic acids. Ribose was isolated from the purified RNA. The 14C label distribution in the isolated ribose precluded a simple hexose-to-pentose conversion by elimination of one terminal carbon from mannitol-1-phosphate. The 14C from mannitol-1-phosphate that did not enter macromolecules was found in CO2 and in some organic, non-phosphorylated compounds that were not identified. We suggest that the de novo synthesis of mannitol-1-phosphate in E. coli may be a reaction specifically dedicated to the biosynthesis of ribose. (+info)
(8/14) Genetic dissection of catalytic activities of the Salmonella typhimurium mannitol enzyme II.
Approximately 60 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were isolated which exhibited altered levels of the activities of the mannitol enzyme II. The mutants were grouped into six distinct categories based on their mannitol fermentation, transport, chemotaxis, and phosphorylation activities. (+info)