(1/40) The crystallographic structure of the mannitol 2-dehydrogenase NADP+ binary complex from Agaricus bisporus.
Mannitol, an acyclic six-carbon polyol, is one of the most abundant sugar alcohols occurring in nature. In the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, it is synthesized from fructose by the enzyme mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MtDH; EC ) using NADPH as a cofactor. Mannitol serves as the main storage carbon (up to 50% of the fruit body dry weight) and plays a critical role in growth, fruit body development, osmoregulation, and salt tolerance. Furthermore, mannitol dehydrogenases are being evaluated for commercial mannitol production as alternatives to the less efficient chemical reduction of fructose. Given the importance of mannitol metabolism and mannitol dehydrogenases, MtDH was cloned into the pET28 expression system and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Kinetic and physicochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme are indistinguishable from the natural enzyme. The crystal structure of its binary complex with NADP was solved at 1.5-A resolution and refined to an R value of 19.3%. It shows MtDH to be a tetramer and a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes. The catalytic residues forming the so-called catalytic triad can be assigned to Ser(149), Tyr(169), and Lys(173). (+info)
(2/40) Spontaneous formation of a mannitol-producing variant of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides grown in the presence of fructose.
We report the spontaneous formation of a stable mannitol-producing variant of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The mannitol-producing variant showed mannitol dehydrogenase activity which was absent in the parental strain. It was also able to use fructose and glucose simultaneously, whereas the parental strain showed diauxic growth with these sugars. A possible explanation of these observations is discussed. (+info)
(3/40) Mannitol transport in Streptococcus mutans.
A hexitol-inducible, phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system was demonstrated in Streptococcus mutans. Cell-free extracts obtained from mannitol-grown cells from a representative strain of each of the five S. mutans serotypes (AHT, BHT, C-67-1, 6715, and LM7) were capable of converting mannitol to mannitol-1-phosphate by a reaction which required phosphoenolpyruvate and Mg2+. Mannitol and sorbitol phosphotransferase activities were found in cell-free extracts prepared from cells grown on the respective substrate, but neither hexitol phosphotransferase activity was present in extracts obtained from cells grown on other substrates examined. A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight component was partially purified from glucose-grown cells and found to stimulate the mannitol phosphotransferase system. Divalent cations Mn2+ and Ca2+ partially replaced Mg2+, while Zn2+ was found to be highly inhibitory. (+info)
(4/40) A catalytic consensus motif for D-mannitol 2-dehydrogenase, a member of a polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenase family, revealed by kinetic characterization of site-directed mutants of the enzyme from Pseudomonas fluorescens.
Lys-295, Asn-300 and His-303 of D-mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens were mutated individually into alanine (K295A, N300A and H303A respectively). Purified mutants displayed catalytic efficiencies for NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of D-mannitol 300-fold (H303A), 1000-fold (N300A) and approx. 400000-fold (K295A) below the wild-type level. Comparison of primary kinetic isotope effects on kinetic parameters for D-fructose reduction by wild-type and mutants at pH 10.0 demonstrate that Asn-300 has an auxiliary role in stabilization of the transition state of hydride transfer, and His-303 contributes to substrate positioning. The large solvent isotope effect of 11+/-1 on k (cat) for mannitol oxidation by K295A at pH((2)H) 10.5 suggests a role for Lys-295 in general base enzymic catalysis. Positional conservation of Lys-295, Asn-300 and His-303 across a family of polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases suggests a unique catalytic signature: Lys-Xaa(4)-Asn-Xaa(2)-His (where 'Xaa' denotes 'any amino acid'). (+info)
(5/40) Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase binary and ternary complexes. Specificity and catalytic mechanism.
Long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases are secondary alcohol dehydrogenases that are of wide interest because of their involvement in metabolism and potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. They differ from other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases because they do not contain a conserved tyrosine and are not dependent on Zn(2+) or other metal cofactors. The structures of the long-chain mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (54 kDa) from Pseudomonas fluorescens in a binary complex with NAD(+) and ternary complex with NAD(+) and d-mannitol have been determined to resolutions of 1.7 and 1.8 A and R-factors of 0.171 and 0.176, respectively. These results show an N-terminal domain that includes a typical Rossmann fold. The C-terminal domain is primarily alpha-helical and mediates mannitol binding. The electron lone pair of Lys-295 is steered by hydrogen-bonding interactions with the amide oxygen of Asn-300 and the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Val-229 to act as the general base. Asn-191 and Asn-300 are involved in a web of hydrogen bonding, which precisely orients the mannitol O2 proton for abstraction. These residues also aid in stabilizing a negative charge in the intermediate state and in preventing the formation of nonproductive complexes with the substrate. The catalytic lysine may be returned to its unprotonated state using a rectifying proton tunnel driven by Glu-292 oscillating among different environments. Despite low sequence homology, the closest structural neighbors are glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, N-(1-d-carboxylethyl)-l-norvaline dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, indicating a possible evolutionary relationship among these enzymes. (+info)
(6/40) On the role of Bronsted catalysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase.
X-ray structure of the Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase ternary complex with NAD+ and D-mannitol suggests that Lys-295 provides catalytic base assistance to secondary alcohol group oxidation. We have replaced Lys-295 by site-directed mutagenesis with alanine or methionine and evaluated the catalytic significance of side-chain substitution by kinetic analysis of restoration of activity with external amines, and from pH and solvent isotope effects on the reaction catalysed by K295A (Lys-295-->Ala mutant). K295A and K295M (Lys-295-->Met mutants) show 3x10(4)- and 2x10(6)-fold lower turnover numbers respectively for D-mannitol oxidation (kcatO) at pH 10.0 than the wild-type. The second-order rate constant for non-covalent rescue of activity (kB) by free methylamine base is 31 M(-1) x s(-1) for K295A, but only 0.021 M(-1) x s(-1) for K295M. A Bronsted relationship of log kB (corrected for molecular size effects) and pKa of the external amine is linear (slope beta=0.66+/-0.16; r2=0.99) for K295A-catalysed D-mannitol oxidation at pH 10.0. The kcatO values of K295A in H2O and 2H2O are linearly dependent on [OL-] in the pL range 7.5-10.5 (where L is 1H or 2H). The solvent isotope effect on kcatO is 0.69. The time course of D-fructose reduction by K295A at pH 8.2 displays a pre-steady-state burst of NADH consumption. These data support a mechanism in which the epsilon -NH2 group of Lys-295 participates in an obligatory pH-dependent, pre-catalytic equilibrium which may control alcohol/alkoxide equilibration of enzyme-bound D-mannitol and activates the C2 atom for subsequent catalytic oxidation by NAD+. (+info)
(7/40) Purification and characterization of a novel mannitol dehydrogenase from a newly isolated strain of Candida magnoliae.
Mannitol biosynthesis in Candida magnoliae HH-01 (KCCM-10252), a yeast strain that is currently used for the industrial production of mannitol, is catalyzed by mannitol dehydrogenase (MDH) (EC 220.127.116.11). In this study, NAD(P)H-dependent MDH was purified to homogeneity from C. magnoliae HH-01 by ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and affinity chromatography. The relative molecular masses of C. magnoliae MDH, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography, were 35 and 142 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme is a tetramer. This enzyme catalyzed both fructose reduction and mannitol oxidation. The pH and temperature optima for fructose reduction and mannitol oxidation were 7.5 and 37 degrees C and 10.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. C. magnoliae MDH showed high substrate specificity and high catalytic efficiency (k(cat) = 823 s(-1), K(m) = 28.0 mM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 29.4 mM(-1) s(-1)) for fructose, which may explain the high mannitol production observed in this strain. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via a sequential ordered Bi Bi mechanism, and C. magnoliae MDH is specific for transferring the 4-pro-S hydrogen of NADPH, which is typical of a short-chain dehydrogenase reductase (SDR). The internal amino acid sequences of C. magnoliae MDH showed a significant homology with SDRs from various sources, indicating that the C. magnoliae MDH is an NAD(P)H-dependent tetrameric SDR. Although MDHs have been purified and characterized from several other sources, C. magnoliae MDH is distinguished from other MDHs by its high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency for fructose only, which makes C. magnoliae MDH the ideal choice for industrial applications, including enzymatic synthesis of mannitol and salt-tolerant plants. (+info)
(8/40) MANNITOL AND MANNITOL DEHYDROGENASES IN CONIDIA OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE.
Horikoshi, Koki (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo, Japan), Shigeji Iida, and Yonosuke Ikeda. Mannitol and mannitol dehydrogenases in conidia of Aspergillus oryzae. J. Bacteriol. 89:326-330. 1965.-A sugar alcohol was isolated from the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae and identified as d-mannitol. Two types of d-mannitol dehydrogenases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked, were found in the conidia. Substrate specificities, pH optima, Michaelis-Menton constants, and the effects of inhibitors were studied. d-Mannitol was converted to fructose by the dehydrogenases. Synthesis of d-mannitol dehydrogenases was not observed during germination; the content of d-mannitol decreased at an early stage of germination. It was assumed, therefore, that d-mannitol might be used as the source of endogenous respiration and provide energy for the germination. (+info)