Dental fear among university students: implications for pharmacological research.
University students are often subjects in randomized clinical trials involving anxiolytic and analgesic medications used during clinical dental and medical procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe a typical university student population available for research by using data from a mail survey. Subjects were 350 students chosen randomly from all enrolled, full-time, traditional students on the main campus at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. The aim was to determine the extent and nature of dental anxiety in this population. In addition, the relationships between subject willingness to receive dental injections and general and mental health and medical avoidance and medical fears were examined. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was used to measure dental anxiety. Dental anxiety was prevalent in this population; 19% of students reported high rates of dental fear. Thirteen percent of students had never had a dental injection. Students with no experience with dental injections were more reluctant than those with experience to receive an injection if one were needed. DAS scores were correlated with injection reluctance. Students who were reluctant to go ahead with a dental injection also reported poorer general and mental health than those who were less reluctant. These students also reported higher medical avoidance and medical anxiety scores. University students provide a rich source of potential subjects for clinical research. The student population, like the community at large, contains people with high levels of dental and medical fear. (+info)
Factors predictive of anxiety before oral surgery: efficacy of various subject screening measures.
Recruiting anxious people for analgesic and anxiolytic studies allows greater opportunities to study the positive effects of anxiolytic medication. The purpose of this study is to describe a population recruited for a study of anxiolytic medication using the third molar model and to evaluate the relative efficacy of different measures of dental anxiety as recruitment tools. A concerted effort was made to recruit anxious subjects. The following measures were tested: Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS), Litt's Oral Surgery Confidence Questionnaire (OSCQ), and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The influence of prior experience with tooth extractions on anxiety was also assessed. Subjects who had previously experienced tooth extraction reported higher anxiety before oral surgery than did subjects without such experience. DAS, DFS and state anxiety scores correlated with anxiety reported before oral surgery. However, OSCQ scores and trait anxiety were not related to anxiety reported before surgery. Linear regression indicated that the DFS predicted anxiety before oral surgery best of all measures that were used. Kleinknecht's DFS is thus recommended for use as a tool for recruiting anxious patients. (+info)
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young adult survivors of childhood cancer.
PURPOSE: This study assessed the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms in young adult survivors of childhood cancer and the association of posttraumatic stress with anxiety, adjustment, perceptions of illness and treatment, and medical data extracted from oncology records. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight young adults (ages 18 to 40 years) who had been treated for childhood cancer completed questionnaires and psychiatric interviews assessing posttraumatic stress, anxiety, perceptions of their illness and treatment, and symptoms of psychologic distress. Data on treatment intensity and severity of medical late effects were collected via chart review. RESULTS: Of the patient sample, 20.5% met American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point since the end of their treatment. Clinically significant levels of intrusive (9%) and avoidant (16.7%) symptoms were reported. Participants also reported elevated state and trait anxiety. Participants with PTSD reported higher perceived current life threat, more intense treatment histories, and higher (and clinically significant) levels of psychologic distress than those who did not have PTSD. CONCLUSION: One-fifth of this sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer met criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD, with clinically significant symptoms of intrusion and avoidance reported. As in other samples, PTSD in young adult survivors was associated with anxiety and other psychologic distress. Survivors' perceptions of treatment and its effects were more highly associated with posttraumatic stress than were more objective medical data. The data suggest that cancer-related posttraumatic stress may emerge in young adulthood and may affect the achievement of developmental milestones and orientation toward health care. (+info)
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study of topical skin analgesics and the anxiety and discomfort associated with venous cannulation.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of topical skin anaesthetic agents on the discomfort and anxiety associated with venous cannulation. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within subject, volunteer trial. METHODS: 20 healthy volunteers underwent venous cannulation on three separate occasions having received topical skin application of either 4% amethocaine gel (Ametop), 5% eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) or E45 cream (placebo). Visual analogue and verbal rating scales were used to assess pain and anxiety associated with the venous cannulation, and anticipated anxiety for future cannulation, under each drug condition. RESULTS: Subjects were aged 22-53 years (mean 32.8 years). The mean visual analogue scores (VAS) for discomfort were found to be significantly lower (p< 0.001) with Ametop (VAS = 18mm) and EMLA (VAS = 29mm) compared with the control (VAS = 38mm). There was a positive correlation (R2 = 72%, p<0.001) between discomfort and the predicted anxiety if cannulation was to be repeated with the same cream. With the placebo a positive correlation (R2 = 19.8%, p = 0.05) was found between the level of anxiety before cannulation and the level of discomfort recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Ametop and EMLA topical anaesthetic agents produce effective skin analgesia for venous cannulation. The use of topical analgesia can reduce perceived anxiety about future cannulation procedures. This has application in the management of anxious patients undergoing intravenous sedation, suggesting that topical analgesia prior to venous cannulation may significantly aid anxiolysis. (+info)
The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners.
AIM: To determine the frequency of use of dental anxiety assessment questionnaires and factors associated with their use in a group of UK dental practitioners. METHOD: A postal questionnaire to all 328 dentists whose names appear in the British Society for Behavioural Sciences in Dentistry Directory. Information collected for each practitioner included gender, year of qualification, type of practice in which anxious dental patients were treated, treatment used to manage anxious dental patients, type and frequency of use of dental anxiety assessment indices. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 275 (84%) practitioners. 269 were analyzed. Only 54 practitioners (20%) used adult dental anxiety assessment questionnaires and only 46 (17%) used child dental anxiety assessment questionnaires. Male practitioners were more likely to report questionnaire use in comparison with females (P< 0.05), when treating dentally anxious adults (26% v 14%). In addition, practitioners providing intravenous sedation were more likely to use an adult dental anxiety questionnaire (P < 0.04) than those who did not use intravenous sedation (29% v 15%). The type of treatment provided had a significant association with the use of child dental anxiety. Those providing general anaesthesia (P = 0.03) and hypnosis (P = 0.01) for dentally anxious children were more inclined to use a questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The use of pre-treatment dental anxiety assessment questionnaires was low in this group of dentists. Male practitioners and those providing intravenous sedation, general anaesthesia or hypnosis seem more likely to use dental anxiety assessment questionnaires. (+info)
Quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with an untreated intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients who are aware of the presence of a patent aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. METHODS: Participants were retrospectively identified and invited to participate in the study; consenting participants were interviewed in a face-to-face setting by means of 2 questionnaires assessing health-related quality of life (Sickness Impact Profile [SIP] and the MOS Short Form-36 [SF-36]) and psychological state (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]). We used Student's t test statistics to compare the scores of the study population with the scores of reference populations. RESULTS: We identified 21 patients, of whom 9 had an aneurysm and 12 had an arteriovenous malformation. Compared with the reference population, these patients had a reduced quality of life for sleep and rest (difference of SIP means, 6.8; 95% CI, 3.1 to 10.5), emotional behavior (10.1; 95% CI, 5.7 to 14.6), mobility (5.4; 95% CI, 2.1 to 8.7), social interactions (5.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 8.9), and alertness behavior (11.9; 95% CI, 6.2 to 17.5). The SIP psychosocial subscore (7.1; 95% CI, 3.9 to 10.2) and total SIP score (4.7; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.2) were also significantly impaired. For the SF-36 domains, social functioning was significantly decreased compared with the reference population (8.9; 95% CI, 0.1 to 17.7). HADS scores for depression were similar for patients and the reference population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that knowledge of harboring an unoccluded untreated intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation reduces quality of life, most prominently on the psychosocial domains, without leading to substantially raised levels of anxiety and depression. (+info)
Web-based cognitive behavior therapy: analysis of site usage and changes in depression and anxiety scores.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavior therapy is well recognized as an effective treatment and prevention for depression when delivered face-to-face, via self-help books (bibliotherapy), and through computer administration. The public health impact of cognitive behavior therapy has been limited by cost and the lack of trained practitioners. We have developed a free Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy intervention (MoodGYM, http://moodgym.anu.edu.au) designed to treat and prevent depression in young people, available to all Internet users, and targeted to those who may have no formal contact with professional help services. OBJECTIVE: To document site usage, visitor characteristics, and changes in depression and anxiety symptoms among users of MoodGYM, a Web site delivering a cognitive-behavioral-based preventive intervention to the general public. METHODS: All visitors to the MoodGYM site over about 6 months were investigated, including 2909 registrants of whom 1503 had completed at least one online assessment. Outcomes for 71 university students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course who visited the site for educational training were included and examined separately. The main outcome measures were (1) site-usage measures including number of sessions, hits and average time on the server, and number of page views; (2) visitor characteristics including age, gender, and initial Goldberg self-report anxiety and depression scores; and (3) symptom change measures based on Goldberg anxiety and depression scores recorded on up to 5 separate occasions. RESULTS: Over the first almost-6-month period of operation, the server recorded 817284 hits and 17646 separate sessions. Approximately 20% of sessions lasted more than 16 minutes. Registrants who completed at least one assessment reported initial symptoms of depression and anxiety that exceeded those found in population-based surveys and those characterizing a sample of University students. For the Web-based population, both anxiety and depression scores decreased significantly as individuals progressed through the modules. CONCLUSIONS Web sites are a practical and promising means of delivering cognitive behavioral interventions for preventing depression and anxiety to the general public. However, randomized controlled trials are required to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. (+info)
The memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer: validation of a new scale to measure anxiety in men with with prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: The psychological difficulties facing men with prostate cancer are acknowledged widely, yet identifying men who may benefit from mental health treatment has proven to be a challenging task. The authors developed the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC) to facilitate the identification and assessment of men with prostate cancer-related anxiety. This scale consists of three subscales that measure general prostate cancer anxiety, anxiety related to prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in particular, and fear of recurrence. METHODS: Ambulatory men with prostate cancer (n = 385 patients) were recruited from clinics throughout the United States. Prior to routine PSA tests, participants completed a baseline assessment packet that included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; the Distress Thermometer; the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale, Prostate Module; and measures of role functioning, sleep, and urinary functioning. PSA values from the last three tests also were collected. Follow-up evaluation was completed within 2 weeks after patients learned of their PSA test result using a subset of these scales. RESULTS: Analysis of the MAX-PC revealed a high degree of internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the total score and for the three subscales, although reliability was somewhat weaker for the PSA Anxiety Scale. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by correlations between the MAX-PC and measures of anxiety. Overall changes in PSA levels were correlated only modestly with changes in MAX-PC scores (correlation coefficient, 0.13; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The MAX-PC appears to be a valid and reliable measure of anxiety in men with prostate cancer receiving ambulatory care. (+info)