Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica on anaerobic dental microglora based on in vivo studies.
The present study was carried out to compare the subgingival plaque microflora in mango leaf users. Fifty subjects of both sexes, 25 of them used tooth brush and 25 used mango leaf as their home care hygiene device were included in the study. The microbiological evaluation for specific bacterial counts of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus micros were carried out for all subject. Specific microbial evaluation revealed significant decrease in the proportion of P. intermedia and P. gingivalis in mango leaf users compared to tooth brush users. It shows that mangiferin possesses antibacterial activity in vivo against specific periodontal pathogens such as P. intermedia and P. gingivalis. Use of mango leaf in conjunction with a tooth brush will be a good home care device for maintenance of oral hygiene. (+info)
Comparison of cross inoculation potential of South African avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Three hundred and eighteen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. Isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. Cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. All isolates produced lesions on all hosts except citrus. Factors such as area of origin and symptom type from which original isolations were made, could not be correlated with lesion development on these hosts. (+info)
A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport infection linked to mango consumption: impact of water-dip disinfestation technology.
Fresh produce increasingly is recognized as an important source of salmonellosis in the United States. In December 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention detected a nationwide increase in Salmonella serotype Newport (SN) infections that had occurred during the previous month. SN isolates recovered from patients in this cluster had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (which identified the outbreak strain), suggesting a common source. Seventy-eight patients from 13 states were infected with the outbreak strain. Fifteen patients were hospitalized; 2 died. Among 28 patients enrolled in the matched case-control study, 14 (50%) reported they ate mangoes in the 5 days before illness onset, compared with 4 (10%) of the control subjects during the same period (matched odds ratio, 21.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.53- infinity; P=.0001). Traceback of the implicated mangoes led to a single Brazilian farm, where we identified hot water treatment as a possible point of contamination; this is a relatively new process to prevent importation of an agricultural pest, the Mediterranean fruit fly. This is the first reported outbreak of salmonellosis implicating mangoes. PFGE was critical to the timely recognition of this nationwide outbreak. This outbreak highlights the potential global health impact of foodborne diseases and newly implemented food processes. (+info)
Food-based dietary guidelines can be developed and tested using linear programming analysis.
Effective food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. This study aimed to develop a rigorous approach for designing population-specific FBDGs. A 4-phase approach based on linear programming analysis was used to design, test, and refine the FBDGs. This was illustrated for Malawian children. In phase I, the objective function minimized the difference in the energy contributed by different food groups between modeled and observed diets for 16 observed diet types, while preferentially selecting foods most often consumed. Constraints ensured nutrient adequacy and diet palatability. In phase II, the meal/snack patterns of the phase I modeled diets were examined to develop season-specific FBDGs. In phase III, the robustness of these FBDGs, for ensuring a nutritionally adequate diet, was tested. The objective function, in this analysis, minimized selected nutrient levels in the modeled diets (i.e., chose the "worst-case scenario"), while respecting the FBDGs, palatability, and energy constraints. The FBDGs were refined in phase IV. In the Malawian example used to illustrate our approach, the FBDGs promoted daily consumption of maize flour, small dry fish (>or=20 g), leaf relish, and 2-3 snacks. The last mentioned included mangoes, in the food-shortage season, and pumpkin in the food-plenty season. In addition, legume relish was recommended in the food-shortage season. The approach presented here can be used to design and then test the robustness of FBDGs for meeting nutrient recommendations. (+info)
Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.
There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro. (+info)
Effect of fruit load and girdling on leaf photosynthesis in Mangifera indica L.
Leaf nitrogen concentration (Nm), mass-to-area ratio, amount of nitrogen per unit leaf area (Na), non-structural carbohydrate concentration (TNCa), maximal rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (Jmax), dark respiration (Rd), net photosynthetic assimilation (Anet), quantum yield of photosystem II (PhiPSII), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured in Mangifera indica L. leaves on three types of fruit-bearing branches (non-girdled, NG; girdled with high (HFL) and low (LFL) fruit load), experiencing similar light exposure. TNCa, Vcmax/Na, Jmax/Na, Rd/Na, Ci, and the initial quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport (alpha) were similar in both HFL and NG treatments, but Nm, Na, and photosynthetic capacity parameters (Vcmax and Jmax) were lower in the HFL than in the NG treatment. The strong depressing effect of girdling on leaf nitrogen concentration cannot therefore be attributed to a change in TNCa. By contrast, Na and TNCa were lower and higher, respectively, in the LFL than in the HFL treatment, suggesting that carbohydrate content may become the driving force behind photosynthetic acclimation to changing source-sink relationships, like the ones resulting from the presence of developing fruits. Vcmax/Na and Jmax/Na were lower in the LFL than in the HFL treatment, while Rd/Na, Ci, and alpha were not affected by fruit load. It is concluded that girdling and high fruit load affect photosynthesis permanently by decreasing and increasing, respectively, leaf nitrogen concentration. Fruit load, moreover, may have an additional effect on photosynthetic capacity by affecting the relationship between Vcmax and Jmax, and Na. (+info)
Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.
This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (p<0.05. The fresh cowpea leaf b-carotene and vitamin C content was 140.9 and 164.3 mg / 100g DM respectively and decreased (p<0.05) with drying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (p<0.05) with drying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention. (+info)
Phylogenetic and morphological re-evaluation of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indica.
Species of Botryosphaeria are among the most serious pathogens that affect mango trees and fruit. Several species occur on mangoes, and these are identified mainly on the morphology of the anamorphs. Common taxa include Dothiorella dominicana, D. mangiferae (= Natrassia mangiferae), D. aromatica and an unidentified species, Dothiorella 'long'. The genus name Dothiorella, however, is acknowledged as a synonym of Diplodia. This study aimed to characterize and name the Botryosphaeria spp. associated with disease symptoms on mangoes. To achieve this isolates representing all four Dothiorella spp. mentioned above were compared with the anamorphs of known Botryosphaeria spp., based on conidial morphology and DNA sequence data. Two genomic regions were analyzed, namely the ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin regions. The morphological and molecular results confirmed that the fungi previously identified from mango as species of Dothiorella belong to Fusicoccum. Dothiorella dominicana isolates were identical to isolates of F. parvum (teleomorph = B. parva). A new epithet, namely F. mangiferum, is proposed for isolates previously treated as D. mangiferae or N. mangiferae. Isolates of D. aromatica were identified as F. aesculi (teleomorph = B. dothidea). A fourth Fusicoccum sp. also was identified as those isolates previously known as Dothiorella 'long'. A key is provided to distinguish these species based on anamorph morphology in culture. This study provides a basis for the identification of Botryosphaeria species from mango, which is important for disease control and to uphold quarantine regulations. (+info)