High dietary manganese lowers heart magnesium in pigs fed a low-magnesium diet.
Young pigs were fed a diet moderately high or low in manganese (Mn) (0.95 +/- 0.10 mmol Mn/kg, n = 8 or 0.040 +/- 0.003 mmol Mn/kg, n = 6) and deficient in magnesium (Mg) (4.1 mmol Mg/kg) for 5 wk. All eight pigs consuming the high Mn diet died following convulsive seizures, whereas only two of six died in the group fed low Mn. In an attempt to determine the cause of death, a subsequent study examined the interactive effect of deficient dietary Mg and Mn on the tissue distribution of Mg and Mn. Pigs were individually fed, for 5 wk, diets that contained: 4.1 mmol Mg/kg and 36.0 micromol Mn/kg, 4.1 mmol Mg/kg and 0.91 mmol Mn/kg, 4.1 mmol Mg/kg and 0.91 mmol Mn/kg with added ultratrace minerals, or 41.1 mmol Mg/kg and 0. 91 mmol Mn/kg, and ultratrace minerals. Liver and skeletal muscle Mn concentrations were significantly elevated by increased dietary Mn. Increased dietary Mn did not affect heart Mn, but heart Mg concentrations were significantly depressed by high, as compared to low, dietary Mn (38.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 32.7 +/- 2.6 mmol Mg/kg). These data suggest high dietary Mn may exacerbate Mg deficiency in heart muscle and thus may be a complicating factor in the deaths observed in Mg-deficient pigs. (+info)
Manganese administration induces the increased production of dopamine sulfate and depletion of dopamine in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model for investigating the effects of manganese poisoning on the serum levels of unsulfated and sulfated forms of dopamine and its biosynthetic precursors, L-Dopa and L-p-tyrosine. Groups of rats were treated daily with Mn(2+) (20 mg or 40 mg; in the form of MnSO(4)) or Na(+) (20 mg; in the form of Na(2)SO(4)). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the serum samples taken after a 50-day experimental period revealed that the serum level of dopamine sulfate increased by more than 10 times compared with untreated control rats or rats treated with sodium sulfate. In contrast, there was a dramatic decrease (by as much as 4.8 times) in the serum level of unsulfated dopamine in manganese-treated rats. The serum levels of L-Dopa sulfate and L-p-tyrosine sulfate were also markedly elevated, although not as much as those of dopamine sulfate. Meanwhile, the serum levels of unsulfated L-Dopa and L-p-tyrosine showed no dramatic changes. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis revealed in general an accumulation of manganese in the four organ samples taken from manganese-treated rats. Compared with liver, heart, and kidney, the highest degree of manganese accumulation in manganese-treated rats appeared to be in brain. These results together suggested a role for manganese in stimulating the dopamine-sulfating sulfotransferases in brain, thereby leading to the depletion of dopamine in vivo. (+info)
Role of trace elements in cancer.
The review considers trace elements including fluorine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, tin, vanadium, silicon, and nickel from the standpoint of their role as either inhibitory or causative agents of cancer and also the possible use of their assay in biological fluids as diagnostic or prognostic aids in patients with cancer. (+info)
Toxicology of choroid plexus: special reference to metal-induced neurotoxicities.
The chemical stability in the brain underlies normal human thinking, learning, and behavior. Compelling evidence demonstrates a definite capacity of the choroid plexus in sequestering toxic heavy metal and metalloid ions. As the integrity of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers, both structurally and functionally, is essential to brain chemical stability, the role of the choroid plexus in metal-induced neurotoxicities has become an important, yet under-investigated research area in neurotoxicology. Metals acting on the choroid plexus can be categorized into three major groups. A general choroid plexus toxicant can directly damage the choroid plexus structure such as mercury and cadmium. A selective choroid plexus toxicant may impair specific plexus regulatory pathways that are critical to brain development and function, rather than induce massive pathological alteration. The typical examples in this category include lead-induced alteration in transthyretin production and secretion as well as manganese interaction with iron in the choroid plexus. Furthermore, a sequestered choroid plexus toxicant, such as iron, silver, or gold, may be sequestered by the choroid plexus as an essential CNS defense mechanism. Our current knowledge on the toxicological aspect of choroid plexus research is still incomplete. Thus, the future research needs have been suggested to focus on the role of choroid plexus in early CNS development as affected by metal sequestration in this tissue, to explore how metal accumulation alters the capacity of the choroid plexus in regulation of certain essential elements involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, and to better understand the blood-CSF barrier as a defense mechanism in overall CNS function. (+info)
Nutritional support at home and in the community.
Technical developments in feeding, together with the growth of support structures in the community has lead to a steady increase in the number of children receiving home enteral tube feeding and home parenteral nutrition. In many cases the adverse nutritional consequences of disease can be ameliorated or prevented, and long term parenteral nutrition represents a life saving intervention. Careful follow up of children receiving home nutritional therapy is necessary to establish the ratio of risks to benefits. A considerable burden is sometimes placed on family or other carers who therefore require adequate training and ongoing support. The respective responsibilities of different agencies relating to funding and support tasks require more clear definition. (+info)
Differential cytotoxicity of Mn(II) and Mn(III): special reference to mitochondrial [Fe-S] containing enzymes.
Manganese (Mn)-induced neurodegenerative toxicity has been associated with a distorted iron (Fe) metabolism at both systemic and cellular levels. In the current study, we examined whether the oxidation states of Mn produced differential effects on certain mitochondrial [Fe-S] containing enzymes in vitro. When mitochondrial aconitase, which possesses a [4Fe-4S] cluster, was incubated with either Mn(II) or Mn(III), both Mn species inhibited the activities of aconitase. However, the IC(10) (concentration to cause a 10% enzyme inhibition) for Mn(III) was ninefold lower than that for Mn(II). Following exposure of mitochondrial fractions with Mn(II) or Mn(III), there was a significant inhibition by either Mn species in activities of Complex I whose active site contains five to eight [Fe-S] clusters. The dose-time response curves reveal that Mn(III) was more effective in blocking Complex I activity than Mn(II). Northern blotting was used to examine the expression of mRNAs encoding transferrin receptor (TfR), which is regulated by cytosolic aconitase. Treatment of cultured PC12 cells with Mn(II) and Mn(III) at 100 microM for 3 days resulted in 21 and 58% increases, respectively, in the expression of TfR mRNA. Further studies on cell growth dynamics after exposure to 25-50 microM Mn in culture media demonstrated that the cell numbers were much reduced in Mn(III)-treated groups compared to Mn(II)-treated groups, suggesting that Mn(III) is more effective than Mn(II) in cell killing. In cells exposed to Mn(II) and Mn(III), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was significantly decreased by 24 and 16%, respectively. In contrast, rotenone and MPP+ did not seem to alter mtDNA levels. These in vitro results suggest that Mn(III) species appears to be more cytotoxic than Mn(II) species, possibly due to higher oxidative reactivity and closer radius resemblance to Fe. (+info)
Studies on the evaluation of the toxicity of various salts of lead, manganese, platinum, and palladium.
Preliminary studies have been conducted on various parameters in order to assess the possible and relative toxicities of a number of metallic salts. Upon oral administration in lethal-dose experiments, two soluble Pt4+ salts were more toxic than the other salts tested. Following intraperiotneal injection in lethal-dose experiments, PbCl2 was less toxic than several of the soluble or partially soluble salts of Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+. An intake of a total of approximately 250 mg of Pt4+ per rat in the drinking fluid over a 30-day interval did not affect the activities of aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase in rat liver microsomes. In rats receiving soluble Pt4+ salts in the drinking fluid, the highest concentration of Pt was found in the kidney and an appreciiable concentration was found in the liver. (+info)
Neurotoxicology of the brain barrier system: new implications.
The concept of a barrier system in the brain has existed for nearly a century. The barrier that separates the blood from the cerebral interstitial fluid is defined as the blood-brain barrier, while the one that discontinues the circulation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid is named the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Evidence in the past decades suggests that brain barriers are subject to toxic insults from neurotoxic chemicals circulating in blood. The aging process and some disease states render barriers more vulnerable to insults arising inside and outside the barriers. The implication of brain barriers in certain neurodegenerative diseases is compelling, although the contribution of chemical-induced barrier dysfunction in the etiology of any of these disorders remains poorly understood. This review examines what is currently understood about brain barrier systems in central nervous system disorders by focusing on chemical-induced neurotoxicities including those associated with nitrobenzenes, N-methyl-D-aspartate, cyclosporin A, pyridostigmine bromide, aluminum, lead, manganese, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, and 3-nitropropionic acid. Contemporary research questions arising from this growing understanding show enormous promises for brain researchers, toxicologists, and clinicians. (+info)