Clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension.
Hemodynamic changes were evaluated in patients with essential hypertension when felypressin of various concentrations was administered. The parameters studied were systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic phase, and endocardial viability ratio. Results showed that blood pressure tended to increase, and the value of 1/pre-ejection period2 (PEP2) tended to decrease, upon administration of 3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.06 international units/ml (IU/ml) of felypressin. Significant increase of blood pressure and decrease in 1/PEP2 was noted upon administration of 3 ml of anesthetic solution containing 0.13 IU/ml of felypressin. No ischemic change of the myocardium was detected even with the highest felypressin concentration (3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.25 IU/ml of felypressin). These results suggest that the clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension is approximately 0.18 IU. This amount is equivalent to 6 ml of 3% propitocaine with 0.03 IU/ml of felypressin, which is a commercially available local anesthetic for dental use. It seems that the decrease in 1/PEP2 that occurred during blood pressure increase was due to the increase in afterload caused by contraction of the arterioles. Although in the present study no ischemic change was noted, special care should be taken to prevent myocardial ischemia in patients with severe hypertension. (+info)
Prolonged diplopia following a mandibular block injection.
A case is presented in which a 14-yr-old girl developed diplopia after injection of the local anesthetic Xylotox E 80 A (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine). Since the complication had a relatively slow onset and lasted for 24 hr, the commonly suggested explanations based on vascular, lymphatic, and neural route theories do not adequately fit the observations. No treatment, other than reassurance, was necessary, and the patient recovered fully. (+info)
Efficacy of mandibular topical anesthesia varies with the site of administration.
This study compared the threshold of pain sensitivity in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold with the posterior. This was followed by a comparison of the reduction of needle insertion pain in the anterior mucobuccal fold and the pterygo-temporal depression by either topical anesthesia or nitrous oxide inhalation. The pain threshold was determined by an analgometer, a pain-measuring device that depends on pressure readings; additionally, pain caused by a needle inserted by a normal technique was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold of pain was significantly lower in the incisor and canine regions than in the premolar and the molar regions (P < 0.001). Compared to a placebo, topical anesthesia significantly reduced the pain from needle insertion in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to the mandibular canine (P < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce pain in the pterygotemporal depression. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not significantly alter pain reduction compared to a control of 100% oxygen. These results suggest that topical anesthesia application may be effective in reducing the pain of needle insertion in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold, but may not be as effective for a standard inferior alveolar nerve block. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not lead to a significant improvement. (+info)
Neural modulation of inflammatory reactions in dental tissues incident to orthodontic tooth movement. A review of the literature.
This article reviews the current knowledge of the biological aspects of dental tissue changes incident to orthodontic tooth movement. The inflammatory nature of these tissue changes was first recognized in the early 1970s, and since then a number of morphological and quantitative investigations have been published in support of this view. The studies dealing with vascular and cellular dental tissue changes, as well as those concerned with inflammatory mediators present at sites of orthodontic tooth movement are systematized and presented accordingly. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of the sensory nerve fibres and their neuropeptides in the control, and development of an inflammatory process, i.e. their role in tooth movement. (+info)
Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.
To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations were an IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by another IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by a mock IO injection. The second premolar, first molar, and second molar were blindly tested with an Analytic Technology pulp tester at 2-min cycles for 120 min postinjection. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. One hundred percent of the subjects had lip numbness with IAN/IO and with IAN/IO plus repeated IO techniques. Rates of anesthetic success for the IAN/IO and for the IAN/IO plus repeated IO injection, respectively, were 100% and 97% for the second premolar, 95% and 95% for the first molar, and 87% and 87% for the second molar. The repeated IO injection increased pulpal anesthesia for approximately 14 min in the second premolar and for 6 min in the first molar, but no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were shown. In conclusion, the repeated IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine given 30 min following a combination IAN/IO injection did not significantly increase pulpal anesthesia in mandibular second premolars or in first and second molars. (+info)
Course and composition of the nerves that supply the mandibular teeth of the rat.
The rodent dentition has become an important model for investigations of interactions between dental tissues and peripheral neurons. Although experimental nerve injury has been widely used for such studies, there is uncertainty about the courses of nerve fibers supplying the mandibular teeth. In order to clarify this, we used a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament proteins to enhance demonstration of nerve fibers so that small nerves could be readily traced in serial frozen sections of mandibles of Sprague Dawley rats ranging in age from embryonic day (E) 18 to postnatal day (P) 90. The 1st molar and anterior portion of the 2nd molar were innervated by small nerves that emerged as distinct branches of the IAN trunk at or near the mandibular foramen. In contrast, the nerve supply to the 3rd molar and posterior part of the 2nd molar was a branch of the lingual nerve that bypassed the mandibular canal altogether. The IAN trunk split into the mental nerve and a large branch to the incisor about 2 mm anterior to the mandibular foramen. Thick branches of the incisor nerve descended into the incisor socket to form a dense plexus of nerve fiber bundles extending along the length of the incisor periodontium. The sparse pulpal innervation of the incisor was provided by a few thin fascicles that emerged from the caudal portion of the periodontal plexus to enter the incisor apex. The dental branches of the IAN and lingual nerve seen in the adult were well established and readily identifiable at age E18 even though their targets were limited to the follicles of the developing teeth. These studies show that the trigeminal branches that supply the mandibular teeth can be identified at a wide range of ages as distinct nerves at a considerable distance proximal to their targets. This detailed information on the courses taken by the dental nerves can provide an anatomical basis for increased precision in characterization and perturbation of neural pathways from the molars and incisor. (+info)
Primary afferent synaptic responses recorded from trigeminal caudal neurons in a mandibular nerve-brainstem preparation of neonatal rats.
1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from the neurons in the superficial trigeminal caudal nucleus (substantia gelatinosa) visually identified in a parasagittal brainstem slice of neonatal rat with the mandibular nerve attached. 2. Stimulation of the mandibular nerve at 0.03 Hz evoked compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or currents (EPSCs) in trigeminal caudal neurons. When stimulated at higher frequency (> 0.5 Hz), compound synaptic responses were largely attenuated and a small component remained. This component had a monosynaptic nature, following high-frequency stimulation (33-50 Hz) with a stable synaptic latency. 3. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5, 50 microM) largely attenuated the slow polysynaptic EPSCs. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM) largely attenuated monosynaptic EPSCs, but only weakly attenuated slow polysynaptic EPSCs. Simultaneous application of CNQX and D-AP5 completely abolished EPSCs. The monosynaptic EPSCs isolated by repetitive stimulation had both NMDA and non-NMDA components. 4. Monosynaptic EPSCs having high threshold had a relatively long latency. During repetitive stimulation (0.5-5.0 Hz), EPSCs having high threshold and long latency underwent a stepwise potentiation in an activity-dependent manner. The conduction velocity estimated for these EPSCs fell into the range of C-fibres. The activity-dependent potentiation was observed for both non-NMDA and NMDA EPSCs and was accompanied by a significant decrease in the coefficient of variation of EPSC amplitude. 5. We suggest that the activity-dependent potentiation of EPSCs is induced presynaptically and that it may underlie the wind-up phenomenon, an activity-dependent hyperexcitability of the primary afferent C-fibres. (+info)
Effects of different types of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve on the behavior of Schwann cells during the regeneration of periodontal nerve fibers of rat incisor.
The present study reports on different regeneration patterns of axons and Schwann cells in the periodontal ligament of the rat incisor using immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and S-100 protein. Three kinds of injury (transection, crush and segmental resection) were applied to the inferior alveolar nerve. In normal animals, PGP 9.5- and S-100-immunoreactivities were detected in the axons and Schwann cell elements of periodontal Ruffini endings, respectively. They were restricted to the alveolus-related part, occurring only rarely in the tooth-related part and in the shear zone (the border between the alveolus-related and tooth-related parts). Both transection and segmental resection caused the complete disappearance of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the periodontal ligament, while a small number of them could be found following the crush injury. Regenerating PGP 9.5-reactive nerve fibers appeared at 5 days and 21 days following the transection and segmental resection, respectively. The regeneration of periodontal nerve fibers completed in a period of 21-28 days and 14-21 days following the transection and crush, respectively, but was not completed even at 56 days following the segmental resection. The behavior of Schwann cells during regeneration was similar after the different nerve injuries; spindle-shaped S-100-immunoreactive cells, presumably Schwann cells, appeared in the shear zone and the tooth-related part. These cells disappeared 5-7 days prior to the completion of the regeneration of axonal elements of the periodontal ligament following the transection and crush. Following the segmental resection, in contrast, spindle-shaped S-100-positive cells disappeared from the tooth-related part at 42 days, although the axonal regeneration of periodontal Ruffini endings proceeded even until 56 days. We thus conclude that the duration of the migration of Schwann cells depends on the state of the regeneration of axons. (+info)