The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible.
The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns. (+info)
Modified cuspal relationships of mandibular molar teeth in children with Down's syndrome.
A total of 50 permanent mandibular 1st molars of 26 children with Down's syndrome (DS) were examined from dental casts and 59 permanent mandibular 1st molars of normal children were examined from 33 individuals. The following measurements were performed on both right and left molars (teeth 46 and 36 respectively): (a) the intercusp distances (mb-db, mb-d, mb-dl, db-ml, db-d, db-dl, db-ml, d-dl, d-ml, dl-ml); (b) the db-mb-ml, mb-db-ml, mb-ml-db, d-mb-dl, mb-d-dl, mb-dl-d angles; (c) the area of the pentagon formed by connecting the cusp tips. All intercusp distances were significantly smaller in the DS group. Stepwise logistic regression, applied to all the intercusp distances, was used to design a multivariate probability model for DS and normals. A model based on 2 distances only, mb-dl and mb-db, proved sufficient to discriminate between the teeth of DS and the normal population. The model for tooth 36 for example was as follows: p(DS) = (e(30.6-5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb-db)))/(1 + e(30.6 5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb db))). A similar model for tooth 46 was also created, as well as a model which incorporated both teeth. With respect to the angles, significant differences between DS and normals were found in 3 out of the 6 angles which were measured: the d-mb-dl angle was smaller than in normals, the mb-d-dl angle was higher, and the mb-dl-d angle was smaller. The dl cusp was located closer to the centre of the tooth. The change in size occurs at an early stage, while the change in shape occurs in a later stage of tooth formation in the DS population. (+info)
Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development.
Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb. (+info)
Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus.
Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size. (+info)
A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain).
The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation. (+info)
Hindlimb patterning and mandible development require the Ptx1 gene.
The restricted expression of the Ptx1 (Pitx1) gene in the posterior half of the lateral plate mesoderm has suggested that it may play a role in specification of posterior structures, in particular, specification of hindlimb identity. Ptx1 is also expressed in the most anterior ectoderm, the stomodeum, and in the first branchial arch. Ptx1 expression overlaps with that of Ptx2 in stomodeum and in posterior left lateral plate mesoderm. We now show that targeted inactivation of the mouse Ptx1 gene severely impairs hindlimb development: the ilium and knee cartilage are absent and the long bones are underdeveloped. Greater reduction of the right femur size in Ptx1 null mice suggests partial compensation by Ptx2 on the left side. The similarly sized tibia and fibula of mutant hindlimbs may be taken to resemble forelimb bones: however, the mutant limb buds appear to have retained their molecular identity as assessed by forelimb expression of Tbx5 and by hindlimb expression of Tbx4, even though Tbx4 expression is decreased in Ptx1 null mice. The hindlimb defects appear to be, at least partly, due to abnormal chondrogenesis. Since the most affected structures derive from the dorsal side of hindlimb buds, the data suggest that Ptx1 is responsible for patterning of these dorsal structures and that as such it may control development of hindlimb-specific features. Ptx1 inactivation also leads to loss of bones derived from the proximal part of the mandibular mesenchyme. The dual role of Ptx1 revealed by the gene knockout may reflect features of the mammalian jaw and hindlimbs that were acquired at a similar time during tetrapod evolution. (+info)
Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning. (+info)
Clinical characteristics of CHARGE syndrome.
CHARGE syndrome, first described by Pagon, was named for its six major clinical features. They are: coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development including CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia and/or urinary tract anomalies, and ear anomalies and/or hearing loss. We experienced three cases of CHARGE syndrome who displayed ocular coloboma, heart defects, retarded growth and development, and external ear anomalies, and we also review the previously reported literature concerning CHARGE syndrome. (+info)