(1/1158) Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells.

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC, the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

(2/1158) Immunohistochemical analysis of c-yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products and p53 tumor suppressor protein in canine mammary tumors.

In order to evaluate the involvement of c-yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products, and p53 tumor suppressor protein in canine mammary neoplastic lesions, sections of archived paraffin-embedded samples of 79 mammary tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically using antibodies against human c-yes p62 and c-erbB-2 products and p53. These 79 tumors were divided into 2 groups: 32 benign (2 adenosis, 7 simple adenomas, 14 complex adenomas, and 9 benign mixed mammary tumors) and 47 malignant tumors (26 simple adenocarcinomas, 7 complex adenocarcinomas, 5 solid carcinomas, 2 sclerosing carcinomas, 6 malignant mixed mammary tumors, and 1 malignant myoepithelioma). As a result of immunostaining, 40.6% (13/32) of the benign tumors and 21.3% (10/47) of the malignant tumors expressed the c-Yes oncogene product, ErbB-2 expression was detected in 50% (16/32) of the benign tumors and in 19.1% (9/47) of the malignant tumors. P53 expression was detected in 16% (4/25) of the benign tumors and in 30.6% (11/36) of the malignant tumors. Co-expression of c-Yes and ErbB-2, ErbB-2 and p53, and all 3 products was detected in 6, 1 and 7 tumors, respectively.  (+info)

(3/1158) T helper cell type 1-associated and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity is impaired in interleukin 4-deficient mice.

It is widely accepted that cellular immune responses are induced by CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells secreting interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Tumor immunity is often mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) whose activation is supported by Th1 cytokines. Since IL-4 directs Th2 development and has been shown to inhibit Th1-dominated responses, we assumed that IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) mice would develop vigorous CTL-mediated tumor immunity compared with IL-4-competent (IL-4(+/+)) mice. Surprisingly, IL-4(-/-) mice were severely impaired to develop tumor immunity to both a mammary adenocarcinoma line and a colon carcinoma line. The lack of tumor immunity in IL-4(-/-) mice was associated with reduced IFN-gamma production, diminished levels of tumor-reactive serum IgG2a, and undetectable CTL activity, indicating a defective Th1 response in the absence of endogenous IL-4. Anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody blocked tumor immunity in IL-4(+/+) mice when administered at the time of immunization but not at the time of challenge. Additionally, tumor immunity could be induced in IL-4(-/-) mice, if IL-4 was provided by gene-modified cells together with immunizing tumor cells. These results demonstrate that tumor immunity requires IL-4 in the priming phase for the generation of effector cells rather than for their maintenance and exclude secondary, developmental defects in the "knockout" strain. Together, our results demonstrate a novel and previously unanticipated role of IL-4 for the generation of Th1-associated, CTL-mediated tumor immunity.  (+info)

(4/1158) Amplification of the c-yes oncogene in canine mammary tumors.

Genomic DNAs of 14 mammary tumors were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization using a human c-yes-1 oncogene probe. The amplification was successful in half of the cases (7 adenocarcinomas). The degree of amplification was approximately 4-fold, and a high proportion was seen in malignant tumors. In addition, DNA polymorphism was detected in two adenocarcinomas.  (+info)

(5/1158) Walker 256/S carcinosarcoma causes osteoporosis-like changes through ectopical secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

We have shown that Walker 256/S mammary carcinoma caused osteoporosis-like changes in young female rats, accompanied by low serum estradiol and hypercalciuria without changes in the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. In this study, we investigated the cause of bone loss after Walker 256/S inoculation into female 6-week-old Wistar Imamichi rats, focusing on the sex hormone balance in the host animal. Walker 256/S-bearing rats showed characteristic osteoporosis, with a significant increase in spleen weight and a significant decrease in uterine weight by 14 days after s.c. tumor inoculation. In the in vitro bone marrow culture, mineralized nodule formation ability decreased according to the time after tumor inoculation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cell formation increased at 7 days after tumor inoculation, but it began to decrease at 14 days after tumor inoculation. This indicates that after inoculation with Walker 256/S tumor, the progenitors of osteoblasts and ostroclasts lost their balance in the bone turnover, resulting in bone resorption. On the other hand, Walker 256/S carcinoma expressed luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) mRNA, and in Walker 256/S-bearing rats, the serum LH-RH level increased significantly from 3 days after tumor inoculation, whereas in the healthy control rats, this level was very low. Consequently, the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone were significantly lower in the tumor-bearing rats than in the healthy control rats. Because the LH-RH gene is located in the long prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) gene and mRNA amplified by reverse transcription-PCR in this study contained whole LH-RH and a part of PIF, the Walker 256/S tumor is thought to express PIF. Indeed, the serum prolactin level decreased in tumor-bearing rats. The serum level of growth hormone, one of the other pituitary hormones, was not changed. Moreover, the level of an osteolytic cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, increased in the serum of Walker 256/S-bearing rats, although this may be a result of the immune response of the host animal to tumor growth as well as an enlarged spleen. In conclusion, the Walker 256/S tumor lowers estrogen secretion through ectopical oversecretion of LH-RH, and then osteolytic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, increase in tumor-bearing rats, escape the control of estrogen, and activate osteoclasts, resulting in bone loss in a short period.  (+info)

(6/1158) Antitumor activity of poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel on syngeneic and xenografted tumors.

Poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) is a new water-soluble paclitaxel derivative that has shown remarkable antitumor activity against both ovarian and breast tumors. The purpose of this study was to test whether the antitumor efficacy of PG-TXL depends on tumor type, as is the case for paclitaxel, and to test whether paclitaxel-resistant tumors could be responsive to PG-TXL. We evaluated the therapeutic activity of PG-TXL against four syngeneic murine tumors (MCa-4, MCa-35, HCa-1, and FSa-II) inoculated i.m. into C3Hf/Kam mice, a human SKOV3ip1 ovarian tumor injected i.p. into nude mice, and a human MDA-MB-435Lung2 breast tumor grown in the mammary fat pad of nude mice. Two paclitaxel-responsive murine tumors, MCa-4 and MCa-35, showed significant growth delay with PG-TXL given as a single i.v. injection at its maximum tolerated dose of 160 mg of equivalent paclitaxel/kg or even at a lower dose of 120 mg of equivalent paclitaxel/kg. The other two murine tumors, HCa-1 and FSa-II, did not respond particularly well to either of the two agents, although significant growth delay was observed for both tumors with PG-TXL. In mice with SKOV3ip1 tumors, the median survival times for mice treated with PG alone and PG-TXL at doses of 60 or 120 mg of equivalent paclitaxel/kg were 43, 61, and 75 days, respectively; no survival difference was found between paclitaxel-treated and Cremophor vehicle-treated mice. In mice with MDA-MB-435Lung2 tumor, PG-TXL at a dose of 120 mg of equivalent paclitaxel/kg produced regression of the tumor in 50% of the animals, and in the remaining mice, micrometastases in the lung were found only in 25% of the animals. In comparison, treatment with paclitaxel at 60 mg/kg did not result in tumor regression, and the rate of lung metastases was 42%. These results clearly demonstrate that PG-TXL has significant therapeutic activity against breast and ovarian tumors tested in this study. Future studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of PG-TXL and to assess its clinical applications are warranted.  (+info)

(7/1158) A mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgene induces mammary gland hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in mice lacking estrogen receptor-alpha.

Estrogens have important functions in mammary gland development and carcinogenesis. To better define these roles, we have used two previously characterized lines of genetically altered mice: estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) knockout (ERKO) mice, which lack the gene encoding ER alpha, and mouse mammary virus tumor (MMTV)-Wnt-1 transgenic mice (Wnt-1 TG), which develop mammary hyperplasia and neoplasia due to ectopic production of the Wnt-1 secretory glycoprotein. We have crossed these lines to ascertain the effects of ER alpha deficiency on mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in mice expressing the Wnt-1 transgene. Introduction of the Wnt-1 transgene into the ERKO background stimulates proliferation of alveolar-like epithelium, indicating that Wnt-1 protein can promote mitogenesis in the absence of an ER alpha-mediated response. The hyperplastic glandular tissue remains confined to the nipple region, implying that the requirement for ER alpha in ductal expansion is not overcome by ectopic Wnt-1. Tumors were detected in virgin ERKO females expressing the Wnt-1 transgene at an average age (48 weeks) that is twice that seen in virgin Wnt-1 TG mice (24 weeks) competent to produce ER alpha. Prepubertal ovariectomy of Wnt-1 TG mice also extended tumor latency to 42 weeks. However, pregnancy did not appear to accelerate the appearance of tumors in Wnt-1 TG mice, and tumor growth rates were not measurably affected by late ovariectomy. Small hyperplastic mammary glands were observed in Wnt-1 TG males, regardless of ER alpha gene status; the glands were similar in appearance to those found in ERKO/Wnt-1 TG females. Mammary tumors also occurred in Wnt-1 TG males; latency tended to be longer in the heterozygous ER alpha and ERKO males (86 to 100 weeks) than in wild-type ER alpha mice (ca. 75 weeks). We conclude that ectopic expression of the Wnt-1 proto-oncogene can induce mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in the absence of ER alpha in female and male mice. The delayed time of tumor appearance may depend on the number of cells at risk of secondary events in the hyperplastic glands, on the carcinogenesis-promoting effects of ER alpha signaling, or on both.  (+info)

(8/1158) Activation of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and induction of cytostasis and apoptosis in mammary carcinomas treated with the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol.

The mechanisms of action of the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol (POH), presently in Phase II clinical trials, were investigated in advanced rat mammary carcinomas. Gross and ultrastructural morphology of POH-mediated tumor regression indicated that apoptosis accounted for the marked reduction in the epithelial compartment. Characterization of cell growth and death indices revealed that apoptosis was induced within 48 h of chemotherapy, before the induction of cytostasis. RNA expression studies, based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, demonstrated that cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed within 48 h of POH treatment; p21(Cip1/WAF1), bax, bad, and annexin I were induced; cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were repressed; and bcl-2 and p53 were unchanged. Next, a potential role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in POH-mediated carcinoma regression was explored. RNA expression studies, again based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, showed that TGF-beta-related genes were induced and temporally regulated during POH treatment: (a) c-jun and c-fos were transiently induced within 12 h of chemotherapy; (b) TGF-beta1 was induced within 24 h of chemotherapy; (c) the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and the TGF-beta type I and II receptors were induced within 48 h of chemotherapy; and (d) smad3 was induced during active carcinoma regression. In situ protein expression studies, based on fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in concert with confocal microscopy, confirmed up-regulation and demonstrated colocalization of TGF-beta1, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, the TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and Smad2/Smad3 in epithelial cells. Nuclear localization of Smad2/Smad3 indicated that the TGF-beta signaling pathway was activated in regressing carcinomas. Subpopulations of Smad2/Smad3-positive and apoptotic nuclei colocalized, indicating a role for Smads in apoptosis. Thus, Smads may serve as a potential biomarker for anticancer activity. Importantly, none of the POH-mediated anticancer activities were observed in normal mammary gland.  (+info)