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(1/4090) Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture.

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

(2/4090) Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice.

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

(3/4090) Effects of lipopolysaccharide on production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.

This investigation was performed to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on production of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. After confluence, the cells were stimulated with LPS (0.1, 1.0 or 10 micrograms/ml) for 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. LPS increased production of both IL-1 and IL-6 production from mammary cells in a dose dependent manner. The expression of mRNA for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  (+info)

(4/4090) Human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta): mammary gland specific expression and production in transgenic rabbits.

Transgenic rabbits carrying gene constructs encoding human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta) cDNA were generated. Expression of hNGF-beta mRNA was restricted to the mammary gland of lactating rabbits. Western Blot analysis revealed a polypeptide of 13.2 kDa in the milk of transgenic animals. hNGF-beta was purified from the milk by a two-step chromatographic procedure. Electrospray mass spectroscopy analysis of purified hNGF-beta depicted a molecular weight of 13,261 Da per subunit. The biological activity of the hNGF-beta was tested using PC12W2 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. Crude defatted milk from transgenic animals and purified hNGF-beta demonstrated full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-beta.  (+info)

(5/4090) Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: mimicking the protective effect of pregnancy.

Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness of perphenazine, a potent mitogenic and differentiating agent. Here, we show that short term treatment of nulliparous rats with pregnancy levels of estradiol 17beta and progesterone has high efficacy in protecting them from chemical carcinogen induced mammary cancers. Because the mammary gland is exposed to the highest physiological concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during full term pregnancy, it is these elevated levels of hormones that likely induce protection from mammary cancer. Thus, it appears possible to mimic the protective effects of pregnancy against breast cancer in nulliparous rats by short term specific hormonal intervention.  (+info)

(6/4090) Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption.

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

(7/4090) Resistance to mammary tumorigenesis in Copenhagen rats is associated with the loss of preneoplastic lesions.

The resistance of Copenhagen (Cop) rats to mammary tumor development has recently been linked to three loci, but the genes have yet to be cloned and the mechanism of resistance is still largely unknown. In order to determine the cellular events associated with resistance, we prepared mammary whole mounts from Cop and susceptible Wistar Furth (WF) rats 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after treatment with 50 mg/kg N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). At 15 days, treated rats of both strains had significantly more undifferentiated structures [terminal end buds (TEBs)] and significantly fewer differentiated structures [alveolar buds (ABs)] than untreated rats. Treated Cop rats, however, had significantly more TEBs and fewer ABs than age-matched, treated WF rats. Histological analysis of preneoplastic lesions tentatively identified from the whole mounts showed that like WF rats, Cop rats developed early preneoplastic lesions [intraductal proliferations (IDPs)] by 15 days post-MNU treatment. Unlike IDPs from WF rats, however, the IDPs in Cop rats then decreased in number until they were absent 60 days post-MNU treatment. Furthermore, they failed to progress into more advanced lesions such as ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). Finally, we found G-->A activating mutations in codon 12 of the Ha-ras gene in 60% of IDPs from Cop rats and 75% of IDPs from WF rats. Our results show that resistance in Cop rats is not due to a target cell population for the carcinogen that is smaller than in susceptible rats or to the failure of the carcinogen to inhibit mammary gland differentiation. Furthermore, we have shown that Cop rats develop preneoplastic IDPs that harbor Ha-ras mutations but, unlike IDPs in susceptible strains, they fail to progress and ultimately disappear.  (+info)

(8/4090) Demonstration of in vivo mammogenic and lactogenic effects of recombinant ovine placental lactogen and mammogenic effect of recombinant ovine GH in ewes during artificial induction of lactation.

The present study demonstrates that ovine placental lactogen (oPL) (ovine chorionic somatotrophin) may have an important role in the mammogenesis and/or lactogenesis of the ewe. Its effects were compared with that already described for ovine growth hormone (oGH). In the first experiment, 40 nulliparous ewes were induced to lactate by means of a 7 day (days 1-7) oestro-progestative treatment (E2+P4). The ewes from Group 1 (n=12) received no further treatment, while those of the other groups received either recombinant oGH (roGH, 28 micrograms/kg, i.m., twice daily, Group 2, n=12) or recombinant oPL (roPL, 79 micrograms/kg, i.m., twice daily, Group 3, n=12) from day 11 to 20. All ewes received 25 mg hydrocortisone acetate (HC) twice daily on days 18-20. Control Group 00 (n=2) received no steroid treatment at all, and the control Group 0 (n=2) received only the E2+P4 treatment. Thirteen ewes (three from each experimental group and the two of each control group) were slaughtered at the end of hormone treatments (day 21) before any milking stimulus. The 27 remaining ewes from Groups 1-3 were machine-milked and milk yields recorded daily from day 21 to 76. The E2+P4 treatment enhanced the plasma levels of oPRL, oGH and IGF-I between days 1 and 7 by 1.5, 2. 3 and 2.6 times respectively (P=0.002); roGH treatment induced a highly significant enhancement of IGF-I plasma levels from day 11 to 20, whereas a similar effect appeared for roPL-treated ewes only from day 17 to 20 (P<0.01). Eight weeks after the last exogenous hormone injections, milk yields of both roGH- and roPL-treated groups progressively rose to twice that of unsupplemented groups (P<0.001). The mammary DNA content on day 21 was higher for animals which received either oGH or oPL but, due to individual variations in so few samples (n=3), this difference was not significant. No beta-casein was measured in mammary tissue from control ewes, whereas steroid-treated ewes (E2+P4+HC) had higher casein concentrations regardless of subsequent hormonal treatment on days 11-20 (P<0.001). beta-Casein concentrations in mammary parenchyma of roGH-treated ewes did not differ from that of ewes which received only E2+P4+HC; roPL supplementation clearly enhanced expression of beta-casein (P<0.001). IGF-I stimulation by either roGH or roPL was more precisely examined during a second experiment, in which two twice-daily i.m. doses (58 or 116 micrograms/kg) of either roGH or roPL were administered to four groups of six ewes that were E2+P4 treated as those of Experiment 1. A control group (n=6) received no exogenous hormone from day 11 to 13. On day 13, hourly blood samples were taken from all ewes over 11 h. Both doses of roGH significantly stimulated IGF-I in a dose-dependent manner. The 58 micrograms/kg dose of roPL did not significantly stimulate IGF-I, but although being somewhat less efficient than the 58 micrograms/kg dose of roGH, the 116 micrograms/kg dose of roPL significantly stimulated IGF-I secretion (P<0. 001). These results suggest that mammogenesis and/or lactogenesis in the ewe is in part controlled by somatotrophic hormones such as oGH and oPL and that IGF-I could be one of the mediators of these hormones.  (+info)