Anti-allergic agents from natural sources (4): anti-allergic activity of new phloroglucinol derivatives from Mallotus philippensis (Euphorbiaceae).
Two new phloroglucinol derivatives, mallotophilippen A (1). and B (2). were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis. These compounds were identified, using chemical and spectral data, as 1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-isobutyryl-5-methyl-benzyl)-2 H-chromen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one and 1-[6-(3-Acetyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-ch romen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one, respectively. They inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene expression by a murine macrophage-like cell line (RAW 264.7), which was activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant mouse interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Furthermore, they inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by Compound 48/80. These results suggest that the novel phloroglucinol derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects. (+info)
Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation by Mallotus japonicus phloroglucinol derivatives.
An aqueous acetone extract obtained from the pericarps of Mallotus japonicus (MJE) was observed to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, or human blood monocytes. Several phloroglucinol derivatives were isolated from the pericarps as active compounds. Among these compounds, isomallotochromanol and isomallotochromene were the most potent in inhibiting cytokine production. MJE and the phloroglucinol derivatives significantly reduced these cytokine mRNA expressions. Gel shift analysis revealed that stimulation of macrophages with LPS caused an increase in the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which was inhibited by isomallotochromanol and isomallotochromene. Western blot analysis showed that LPS reduced the IkappaB-alpha level in macrophages, while 10 microM isomallotochromanol and 10 microM isomallotochromene attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in IkappaB-alpha protein. We conclude that these phloroglucinol derivatives inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mRNA expression via suppression of NF-kappaB activation in activated macrophages. (+info)
Two new galloylglucosides from the leaves of Mallotus furetianus.
Two new galloylglucosides, mallophenols A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Mallotus furetianus (Euphorbiaceae), together with seven known compounds, (6S,9R)-roseoside (3), aviculin (4), (+)-lyoniresinol-3alpha-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (5), (Z)-3-hexenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 3,3,8,9,10-pentahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (7), 3-hydroxy-4,5(R)-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (8) and gallic acid (9). The stereostructures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. (+info)
Antiallergic agents from natural sources 9. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by novel chalcone derivatives from Mallotus philippinensis (Euphorbiaceae).
Three novel chalcone derivatives, mallotophilippens C (1), D (2) and E (3) were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippinensis MUELL. ARG. These compounds were identified, using chemical and spectral data, as 1-[6-(3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,6-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-8-yl]-3 -(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propenone, 3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-1-[6-(3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,6-dienyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-di methyl-2H-chromen-8-yl]-propenone and 1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-6-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-2H-chr omen-8-yl]-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-propenone, respectively. They inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene expression by a murine macrophage-like cell line (RAW 264.7), which was activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant mouse interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Furthermore, they downregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene, interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression. These results suggest that they have anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. (+info)
Clinico-immunologic evaluation of allergy to Himalayan tree pollen in atopic subjects in India--a new record.
Exposure to local pollen allergens has a direct bearing on the prevalence of allergic symptoms among the inhabiting atopic population. The populations in the Himalayas and around it are exposed to a variety of pollen grains from trees growing in the region, but the pollen-population interaction has not been clinically investigated. Himalayan tree pollen from five different taxa, i.e. Alnus nitida (AN), Betula utilis (BU), Cedrus deodara (CD), Mallotus phillipensis (MP) and Quercus incana (QI) were evaluated for their allergenicity in the Indian population by in vivo (skin prick test) and in vitro (ELISA) clinico-immunological methods. The presence of specific IgE against these tree pollen in the sera of skin test positive patients was taken as evidence for sensitization to these pollen. The average skin positivity in atopic populations recorded at different allergy centers in India varied from 2.2% against AN, to 4.7% against MP pollen. Significantly raised specific IgE against these pollen were observed in the sera of hypersensitive patients. The sensitization pattern to Himalayan tree pollen in these atopic populations varied. It was concluded that skin prick test positivity and raised IgE antibodies specific to AN, BU, CD, MP and QI established Himalayan tree pollen as important sensitizers in the atopic populations of India. A high incidence of skin sensitivity was observed to pollen antigens of Cedrus deodara, Mallotus phillipensis and Quercus incana in patients of Chandigarh residing in the hills and foothills of the Himalayas while Alnus nitida, Betula utilis and Cedrus deodara were important sensitizers in Delhi patients. The skin sensitization pattern against these pollen was in accordance with the level of exposure to these pollen of the subjects residing in that part of the country. (+info)
The limited importance of size-asymmetric light competition and growth of pioneer species in early secondary forest succession in Vietnam.
Potent bactericidal constituents from Mallotus philippinensis against clarithromycin and metronidazole resistant strains of Japanese and Pakistani Helicobacter pylori.
In the quest for potent anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, we found 70% EtOH extract of Mallotus philippinensis (LAM.) MUELL. (MPM) with strong bactericidal activity at the concentration of 15.6-31.2 mg/l against eight H. pylori strains. Further fractionation and purification of 70% EtOH extract of MPM led to the isolation of 5 compounds, namely 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-6-prenylflavanone (1), 3'-prenylrubranine (2), red compound (3), isorottlerin (4), and rottlerin (5) which were elucidated on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Among the isolated compounds, rottlerin exhibited most potent bactericidal activity with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 3.12-6.25 mg/l against several clinical H. pylori isolates including Japanese and Pakistani strains, nine clarithromycin resistant (CR), and seven metronidazole resistant (MR) strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of CR (8->256 mg/l) and MR (>256 mg/l) strains were analyzed by E test. Moreover, the clarithromycin resistant strains were evaluated for A2143G and A2144G point mutations of 23s rRNA gene to correlate the MBC values with mutation type. Our results revealed the potent in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of MPM and rottlerin, specially against CR and MR strains, which could be gainfully utilized for the development of novel antimicrobials to prevent H. pylori related disorders. (+info)
Effects of light on direct and indirect defences against herbivores of young plants of Mallotus japonicus demonstrate a trade-off between two indirect defence traits.