Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria. (+info)
Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.
Mutations in human CYP2C19 and parasite dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes, related to poor metabolism of proguanil and resistance to cycloguanil, respectively, have both been assumed to be associated with poor antimalarial effect by proguanil. To study this, 95 subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections in Vanuatu received proguanil treatment for 3 days (adult relative dose of 300-500 mg/day) and were followed up for 28 days. A similarly high antimalarial efficacy against both infections was observed in 62 patients with CYP2C19-related poor metabolizer genotype and in 33 with extensive metabolizer genotype, even though blood cycloguanil was significantly more often detected in those with extensive metabolizer genotype than in those with poor metabolizer genotype. All 28 P. falciparum isolates had two dhfr mutations (residues 59 and 108), suggesting moderate resistance to cycloguanil. The results suggest that the parent compound proguanil has significant intrinsic efficacy against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. (+info)
Semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of human malaria parasites and evidence of Plasmodium vivax infection in Equatorial Guinea.
A semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of the sequences of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene was tested in a field trial in Equatorial Guinea (a hyperendemic focus of malaria in west central Africa). The method uses a primary PCR amplification reaction with a universal reverse primer and two forward primers specific for the genus Plasmodium and to mammals (the mammalian-specific primer was included as a positive control to distinguish uninfected cases from inhibition of the PCR). The second amplification is carried out with the same Plasmodium genus-specific forward primer and four specific reverse primers for each human Plasmodium species. The PCR amplified products are differentiated by fragment size after electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel. Four villages from three regions of the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and two suspected Plasmodium vivax-P. ovale infections from the hospital of Malabo were tested by microscopy and PCR. The PCR method showed greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examination and confirmed the existence of a focus of P. vivax infections in Equatorial Guinea suspected by microscopic examination. It also provided evidence of several mixed infections, mainly P. falciparum and P. malariae, the two predominant species causing malaria in Equatorial Guinea. (+info)
Serum levels of thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Elevated plasma or serum levels of thrombomodulin (TM), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin have been reported in several diseases. However, plasma or serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin have not been investigated in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Serum TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and creatinine levels were determined in six Japanese patients in the acute phase of vivax malaria and in seven healthy Japanese controls. Parasitemias of the peripheral blood were < 0.1% in five patients and 0.8% in one patient. The patients' mean +/- SD serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were 5.7 +/- 1.3 Fujirebio units/ml, 709 +/- 397 ng/ml, 2,112 +/- 782 ng/ml, and 99 +/- 28 ng/ml, respectively, and all were significantly greater than those in the controls (TM; P < 0.005, ICAM-1; P < 0.025, VCAM-1; P < 0.005, E-selectin; P < 0.025). However, no significant difference was identified between patients and controls for serum creatinine values. The serum levels of TM and VCAM-1 were not related to parasitemia. The elevation of serum TM levels suggests that endothelial cell damage occurs in the acute phase of vivax malaria. (+info)
Differential perpetuation of malaria species among Amazonian Yanomami Amerindians.
To determine whether malaria perpetuates within isolated Amerindian villages in the Venezuelan Amazon, we surveyed malaria infection and disease among 1,311 Yanomami in three communities during a 16-month period. Plasmodium vivax was generally present in each of these small, isolated villages; asymptomatic infection was frequent, and clinical disease was most evident among children less than five years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.2) and among persons experiencing parasitemias > or = 1,000 parasites/mm3 of blood (OR = 45.0, 95% CI = 5.5-370.7). Plasmodium falciparum, in contrast, was less prevalent, except during an abrupt outbreak in which 72 infections resulted in symptoms in all age groups and at all levels of parasitemia, and occasionally were life-threatening. The observed endemic pattern of P. vivax infection may derive from the capacity of this pathogen to relapse, while the epidemic pattern of P. falciparum infection may reflect occasional introductions of strains carried by immigrants or residents of distant villages and the subsequent disappearance of this non-relapsing pathogen. (+info)
Reduced soluble transferrin receptor concentrations in acute malaria in Vanuatu.
Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration is a sensitive index of iron deficiency when used in conjunction with ferritin measurements in adults. One advantage of this assay is that unlike ferritin it does not appear to be affected by a range of infectious and inflammatory conditions or by pregnancy, rendering it a promising adjunct to the diagnosis of iron deficiency in tropical populations. We have measured plasma sTfR concentrations in a group of malaria patients (n = 21) and asymptomatic (18) and aparasitemic (76) controls in Vanuatu. Plasma sTfR concentration was significantly reduced in individuals with acute malaria (P = 0.003). While this observation provides evidence that erythropoeitic suppression may be an important etiologic component in malarial anemia, it also suggests that malaria may be a confounding factor when interpreting sTfR concentrations in such populations. The role of sTfR in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in tropical populations remains to be established. (+info)
In vivo responses to antimalarials by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from isolated Gag Island off northwest Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
There is renewed interest in the rich nickel and cobalt deposits of Pulau Gag, an isolated but malarious island off the northwest coast of Irian Jaya. In preparation for an expanded workforce, an environmental assessment of malaria risk was made, focusing upon malaria prevalence in the small indigenous population, and the in vivo sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P), the respective first- and second-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria in Indonesia. During April-June 1997, mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic malaria infections were found in 24% of 456 native residents. Infections by P. falciparum accounted for 60% of the cases. Respective day 28 cure rates for CQ (10 mg base/kg on days 0 and 1; 5 mg/kg on day 2) in children and adults were 14% and 55% (P < 0.005). Type RII and RIII resistance characterized only 5% of the CQ failures. Re-treatment of 36 P. falciparum CQ treatment failures with S/P (25 mg/kg and 1.25 mg/kg, respectively) demonstrated rapid clearance and complete sensitivity during the 28-day follow-up period. More than 97% of the P. vivax malaria cases treated with CQ cleared parasitemia within 48 hr. Three cases of P. vivax malaria recurred between days 21 and 28, but against low drug levels in the blood. The low frequency of RII and RIII P. falciparum resistance to CQ, the complete sensitivity of this species to S/P, and the absence of CQ resistance by P. vivax are in contrast to in vivo and in vitro test results from sites on mainland Irian Jaya. (+info)
Border malaria characters of reemerging vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.
Since 1993, the number of vivax malaria cases has increased every year in the northern part of the Republic of Korea (ROK). This study was designed to characterize factors related to the reemergence of malaria in the ROK. A total of 21 cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994 distributed sporadically in the narrow zone along the demilitarized zone (DMZ). Of total 317 civilian inhabitant cases reported in 1994-1997, 287 cases were studied and 80.8% of them resided within 10 km from the southern border of the DMZ. The frequency distribution of anti-Plasmodium vivax antibody titers using indirect fluorescent antibody test was compared in three villages in relation with distance from the DMZ. The number of inhabitants with high antibody titers was larger in the village nearest to the border than that in more distant villages. The present results highly suggested that the reemerging vivax malaria start in the border area, most possibly caused by infected mosquitoes which flew across the border. This pattern of transmission repeated year after year. (+info)