(1/5061) Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria.
We studied 424 adults with falciparum malaria admitted over 28 months. They were divided into three groups: cerebral malaria (n = 214); severe non-cerebral malaria (n = 58); and uncomplicated malaria (n = 152). Fundus examination was done daily from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haemorrhages, 40 (9.43%) (25 cerebral malaria, 10 severe non-cerebral and five uncomplicated malaria); papilloedema, 17 (7.94%) cerebral malaria and two uncomplicated malaria; blurring of disc margins, 25 (11.68%) cerebral and seven non-cerebral; retinal oedema, six (2.80%) cerebral and five non-cerebral malaria; disc pallor, five patients all with cerebral malaria; vitreous haemorrhage and hard exudate in one patient each, both cerebral malaria. Retinal haemorrhage was associated with cerebral malaria and severe non-cerebral malaria, especially with severe anaemia (p < 0.001), as compared to uncomplicated malaria (p < 0.01). The association of papilloedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria (p < 0.001). None of these findings was associated with statistically significant mortality, except disc pallor in cerebral malaria (p < 0.05). (+info)
(2/5061) Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.
New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria. (+info)
(3/5061) Declining concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma during 5-day oral treatment with artesunate for Falciparum malaria.
Six patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria received artesunate for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma 2 h after a dose showed a time-dependent decline. Concentrations of artesunate in plasma especially after the last dose, were very low. Despite this, all patients responded with a fast recovery. (+info)
(4/5061) Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon.
The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies. (+info)
(5/5061) Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.
Mutations in human CYP2C19 and parasite dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes, related to poor metabolism of proguanil and resistance to cycloguanil, respectively, have both been assumed to be associated with poor antimalarial effect by proguanil. To study this, 95 subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections in Vanuatu received proguanil treatment for 3 days (adult relative dose of 300-500 mg/day) and were followed up for 28 days. A similarly high antimalarial efficacy against both infections was observed in 62 patients with CYP2C19-related poor metabolizer genotype and in 33 with extensive metabolizer genotype, even though blood cycloguanil was significantly more often detected in those with extensive metabolizer genotype than in those with poor metabolizer genotype. All 28 P. falciparum isolates had two dhfr mutations (residues 59 and 108), suggesting moderate resistance to cycloguanil. The results suggest that the parent compound proguanil has significant intrinsic efficacy against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. (+info)
(6/5061) Interferon-gamma responses are associated with resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum in young African children.
The contribution of T cell-mediated responses was studied with regard to resistance to reinfection in groups of Gabonese children participating in a prospective study of severe and mild malaria due to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. In those admitted with mild malaria, but not in those with severe malaria, production of IFN-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to either liver-stage or merozoite antigen peptides was associated with significantly delayed first reinfections and with significantly lower rates of reinfection. Proliferative or tumor necrosis factor responses to the same peptides showed no such associations. Production of interferon-gamma by PBMC in response to sporozoite and merozoite antigen peptides was observed in a higher proportion of those presenting with mild malaria. Differences in the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance may be linked to the ability to control parasite multiplication in these young children, helping to explain the marked differences observed in both susceptibility to infection as well as in clinical presentation. (+info)
(7/5061) Complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections is consistent over time and protects against clinical disease in Tanzanian children.
The complexity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in 21 children was studied in repetitive samples over 4 years in an area of Tanzania where the organism is holoendemic. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction method that targets three highly polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface protein (MSP) 1 block 2, MSP 2, and the glutamine-rich protein. Eight children were repeatedly parasitemic, 5 had scanty parasitemias, and 8 were consistently nonparasitemic. Varying numbers of genotypes were detected in the parasitemic children, but the multiplicity of infection was significantly constant within each child. The children with frequent parasitemias experienced fewer clinical episodes during the study period than those without parasitemias. There was also a tendency for children with more complex infections to experience fewer episodes. The children had consistent parasitologic profiles over the 4 years. Although few subjects were studied and the results will require confirmation, the results suggest that asymptomatic (especially polyclonal) P. falciparum infection protects against clinical disease from new infections. (+info)
(8/5061) Comparison of a parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (OptiMAL) with microscopy for the detection of malaria parasites in human blood samples.
Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, but is labor-intensive and requires skilled operators. Rapid dipstick technology provides a potential alternative. A study was conducted in The Gambia to compare the performance of OptiMAL, an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of malaria using parasite lactate dehydrogenase, against standard microscopy in patients with suspected malaria. For initial diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum, irrespective of stage, this assay had a sensitivity of 91.3%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 87.2%, and a negative predictive value of 94.7%. The sensitivity of the test decreased markedly at parasitemias < 0.01%. This assay can be used for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where microscopy is not available and for urgent malaria diagnosis at night and at weekends, when routine laboratories are closed and when relatively inexperienced microscopists may be on duty. (+info)