(1/847) Caval contribution to flow in the branch pulmonary arteries of Fontan patients with a novel application of magnetic resonance presaturation pulse.

BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of fluid mechanics in Fontan physiology includes knowledge of the caval contributions to right (RPA) and left (LPA) pulmonary arterial blood flow, total systemic venous return, and relative blood flow to each lung. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten Fontan patients underwent cine MRI. Three cine scans of the pulmonary arteries were performed: (1) no presaturation pulse, (2) a presaturation pulse labeling inferior vena cava (IVC) blood (signal void), and (3) a presaturation pulse labeling superior vena cava (SVC) blood. The relative signal decrease is proportional to the amount of blood originating from the labeled vena cava. This method was validated in a phantom. Whereas 60+/-6% of SVC blood flowed into the RPA, 67+/-12% of IVC blood flowed toward the LPA. Of the blood in the LPA and RPA, 48+/-14% and 31+/-17%, respectively, came from the IVC. IVC blood contributed 40+/-16% to total systemic venous return. The distributions of blood to each lung were nearly equal (RPA/LPA blood=0.94+/-11). CONCLUSIONS: In Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connection, SVC blood is directed toward the RPA and IVC blood is directed toward the LPA. Although the right lung volume is larger than the left, an equal amount of blood flow went to both lungs. LPA blood is composed of equal amounts of IVC and SVC blood because IVC contribution to total systemic venous return is smaller than that of the SVC. This technique and these findings can help to evaluate design changes of the systemic venous pathway to improve Fontan hemodynamics.  (+info)

(2/847) Exercise-induced attenuation of alpha-adrenoceptor mediated vasoconstriction in humans: evidence from phase-contrast MRI.

OBJECTIVE: We recently provided evidence for contraction-induced attenuation of reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle microcirculation. We now asked whether contraction-induced modulation of alpha-adrenoceptor mediated vasoconstriction in the human forearm (a) is evident in a large artery supplying the contracting skeletal muscle and (b) implicates a post-junctional site of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these questions in humans, we used phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the brachial artery during brachial-artery infusion of the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist norepinephrine (NE) (1.1 g/min for 5 min) at rest and during mild ipsilateral rhythmic handgrip (20% of maximum). At rest, brachial artery conductance decreased progressively during the entire 5 min period of infusion (baseline to first half to second half of infusion: 0.421 +/- 0.157 to 0.255 +/- 0.187 to 0.012 +/- 0.014 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). When NE was superimposed on handgrip, conductance at first decreased sharply (1.205 +/- 0.127 to 0.330 +/- 0.097 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). However, during the second half of the infusion, conductance did not decrease further but rather returned progressively toward baseline (0.476 +/- 0.199 ml/min/mmHg at the end of the exercise, P < 0.05 vs. NE alone). CONCLUSION: These data provide new evidence in humans that alpha-adrenoceptor mediated vasoconstriction is sensitive to modulation by skeletal muscle contraction. Such modulation is evident at the level of a large conduit artery and it involves a post-junctional mechanism of action.  (+info)

(3/847) Third ventriculostomy patency: comparison of findings at cine phase-contrast MR imaging and at direct exploration.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) MR imaging is a known method for evaluating CSF flow after third ventriculostomy. In this study, we attempted to confirm the accuracy of cine PC MR imaging for determining the patency of a third ventriculostomy as compared with direct reexploration of the floor of the third ventricle. METHODS: We examined 11 patients with third ventriculostomies who had a total of 13 reoperations for symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus. In 12 of the 13 reexplorations, cine PC MR studies were obtained before repeat surgery, and the diagnoses suggested by imaging were compared with intraoperative findings. RESULTS: Four of five patients who had no flow on MR images had new membranes that covered the orifice; the fifth patient still had a small perforation visible at the time of operation. Three of four patients who had subtle flow on MR images were found to have occlusion with new membranes; the fourth had an incomplete new membrane. Finally, two of three who had a patent ventriculostomy had completely open perforations without membrane formation; the third patient had nonobstructive early membrane formation. At 3 months' follow-up, two flow studies were read as subtle without any clinical symptoms; however, these eventually progressed to become symptomatic, and occlusion with new membrane formation was confirmed during surgical reexploration. CONCLUSION: Cine PC MR imaging is a reliable technique for detecting the patency of a third ventriculostomy, but minor flow, as defined in this report, appears to be an early sign of closure.  (+info)

(4/847) Spontaneous ventriculostomy: report of three cases revealed by flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging.

Spontaneous ventriculostomy is a rare condition that occurs with the spontaneous rupture of a ventricle, resulting in a communication between the ventricular system and the subarachnoid space. Three cases of spontaneous ventriculostomy through the floor of the third ventricle that occurred in cases of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus are presented. The communication was identified via flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging. Spontaneous ventriculostomy is probably a result of a rupture of the normally thin membrane that forms the floor of the third ventricle and, with long-standing obstructive hydrocephalus, creates an internal drainage pathway that spontaneously compensates for the hydrocephalus.  (+info)

(5/847) Cardiac motion tracking using CINE harmonic phase (HARP) magnetic resonance imaging.

This article introduces a new image processing technique for rapid analysis of tagged cardiac magnetic resonance image sequences. The method uses isolated spectral peaks in SPAMM-tagged magnetic resonance images, which contain information about cardiac motion. The inverse Fourier transform of a spectral peak is a complex image whose calculated angle is called a harmonic phase (HARP) image. It is shown how two HARP image sequences can be used to automatically and accurately track material points through time. A rapid, semiautomated procedure to calculate circumferential and radial Lagrangian strain from tracked points is described. This new computational approach permits rapid analysis and visualization of myocardial strain within 5-10 min after the scan is complete. Its performance is demonstrated on MR image sequences reflecting both normal and abnormal cardiac motion. Results from the new method are shown to compare very well with a previously validated tracking algorithm. Magn Reson Med 42:1048-1060, 1999.  (+info)

(6/847) Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair.

OBJECTIVE: To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation. SETTING: The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects. RESULTS: The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m(2); p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0. 05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal. CONCLUSIONS: Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.  (+info)

(7/847) Endoscopic aqueductal plasty via the fourth ventricle through the cerebellar hemisphere under navigating system guidance--technical note.

A 1-year 8-month-old boy presented with isolated fourth ventricle after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus associated with ventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The therapeutic endoscope was inserted through the thin left cerebellar hemisphere. Endoscopic aqueductal plasty was performed via the enlarged fourth ventricle under guidance from a navigating system. Endoscopic aqueductal plasty via the fourth ventricle under navigating system guidance is a useful procedure enabling less invasive surgery for isolated fourth ventricle associated with slit-like ventricle after shunt placement.  (+info)

(8/847) Importance of imaging method over imaging modality in noninvasive determination of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: assessment by two- and three-dimensional echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the concordance between biplane and volumetric echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies and their impact on the classification of patients according to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (LVEF). BACKGROUND: Transthoracic echocardiography and MRI are noninvasive imaging modalities well suited for serial evaluation of LV volume and LVEF. Despite the accuracy and reproducibility of volumetric methods, quantitative biplane methods are commonly used, as they minimize both scanning and analysis times. METHODS: Thirty-five adult subjects, including 25 patients with dilated cardiomyopathies, were evaluated by biplane and volumetric (cardiac short-axis stack) cine MRI and by biplane and volumetric (three-dimensional) transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular volume, LVEF and LV function categories (LVEF > or =55%, >35% to <55% and < or =35%) were then determined. RESULTS: Biplane echocardiography underestimated LV volume with respect to the other three strategies (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between any of the strategies for quantitative LVEF. Volumetric MRI and volumetric echocardiography differed by a single functional category for 2 patients (8%). Six to 11 patients (24% to 44%) differed when comparing biplane and volumetric methods. Ten patients (40%) changed their functional status when biplane MRI and biplane echocardiography were compared; this comparison also revealed the greatest mean absolute difference in estimates of EF for those subjects whose EF functional category had changed. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric MRI and volumetric echocardiographic measures of LV volume and LVEF agree well and give similar results when used to stratify patients with dilated cardiomyopathy according to systolic function. Agreement is poor between biplane and volumetric methods and worse between biplane methods, which assigned 40% of patients to different categories according to LVEF. The choice of imaging method (volumetric or biplane) has a greater impact on the results than does the choice of imaging modality (echocardiography or MRI) when measuring LV volume and systolic function.  (+info)