Dietary antioxidants and magnesium in type 1 brittle asthma: a case control study.
BACKGROUND: Type 1 brittle asthma is a rare form of asthma. Atopy, psychosocial factors and diet may contribute to this condition. As increased dietary magnesium has a beneficial effect on lung function and selenium, vitamins A, C and E have antioxidant properties, a study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients with brittle asthma have diets deficient in these nutrients compared with subjects with non-brittle asthma and healthy adults. METHODS: A case control study of the dietary intakes of 20 subjects with brittle asthma, 20 with non-brittle asthma, and 20 healthy adults was performed using five day weighed dietary records. Intake of magnesium was the primary outcome measure with selenium and vitamins A, C and E as secondary outcomes. Serum levels were measured at the same time as the dietary assessment. RESULTS: Sixty subjects (27 men) of mean age 49.5 years were recruited and completed the study. Subjects with brittle asthma had statistically lower median dietary intakes of vitamins A and E than the other groups (vitamin A: brittle asthma 522.5 micrograms/day, non-brittle asthma 869.5 micrograms/day, healthy adults 806.5 micrograms/day; vitamin E: brittle asthma 4.3 mg/day, non-brittle asthma 4.6 mg/day, healthy adults 4.5 mg/day). Median dietary intakes for the other nutrients were not significantly different between groups. Serum levels were within normal ranges for each nutrient in all subjects. Intakes less than the reference nutrient intake (RNI) for magnesium and vitamins A and C, and less than the safe intake (SI) for vitamin E were more likely in patients with brittle asthma than in those with non-brittle asthma. CONCLUSION: Nutrient deficiency and reduced antioxidant activity may contribute to disease activity in type 1 brittle asthma, although a prospective study of replacement therapy will be needed to confirm this hypothesis. (+info)
Effect of magnesium deficiency on blood pressure and mechanical properties of rat carotid artery.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Mg deficiency (80 mg/kg versus control diet: 960 mg/kg) on blood pressure and mechanical properties of the rat common carotid artery. The internal diameter and intra-arterial pressure of carotid artery were measured continuously with an echo-tracking device. At 19 weeks, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were higher in Mg-deficient rats. Histological examination showed an increase in cross-sectional area, intima-media thickness, and media-to-lumen ratio in carotid artery of Mg-deficient rats. Mg deficiency did not modify the arterial distensibility-blood pressure curve. At mean blood pressure, arterial distensibility was significantly less in 19-week-old rats than in 5-week-old rats of both control and Mg-deficient groups. A significant interaction between age and Mg-deficient diet on arterial distensibility (P<0.04) indicates an accelerated age-dependent decreased arterial distensibility with Mg deficiency. At 19 weeks, the artery was stiffer in hypertensive Mg-deficient rats, as illustrated by a shift to higher levels of the incremental elastic modulus-stress curve. In conclusion, the increased blood pressure and the vascular morphological alterations observed in Mg-deficient rats may contribute to an accelerated alteration of the wall material, which in turn leads to a stiffening of the carotid artery. (+info)
Primary hypomagnesemia caused by isolated magnesium malabsorption: atypical case in adult.
Isolated magnesium malabsorption is a rare disorder, which bas been described in no more than 30 patients worldwide. Patients with this disorder typically present with convulsion and diarrhea in early infancy. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia were found in a 35-year-old man with muscle cramps, who bad been diagnosed as primary hypoparathyroidism. Oral magnesium therapy corrected the low serum calcium, magnesium and parathyroid hormone levels. We report an atypical case of isolated magnesium malabsorption in an adult. (+info)
Paracellin-1, a renal tight junction protein required for paracellular Mg2+ resorption.
Epithelia permit selective and regulated flux from apical to basolateral surfaces by transcellular passage through cells or paracellular flux between cells. Tight junctions constitute the barrier to paracellular conductance; however, little is known about the specific molecules that mediate paracellular permeabilities. Renal magnesium ion (Mg2+) resorption occurs predominantly through a paracellular conductance in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL). Here, positional cloning has identified a human gene, paracellin-1 (PCLN-1), mutations in which cause renal Mg2+ wasting. PCLN-1 is located in tight junctions of the TAL and is related to the claudin family of tight junction proteins. These findings provide insight into Mg2+ homeostasis, demonstrate the role of a tight junction protein in human disease, and identify an essential component of a selective paracellular conductance. (+info)
Effect of magnesium deficiency on autonomic circulatory regulation in conscious rats.
A close relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular function has been reported; however, the effect of magnesium deficiency on autonomic cardiovascular regulation has not been clarified. We investigated the effect of magnesium deficiency on the autonomic regulation of oscillations of the R-R interval, arterial blood pressure (BP), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) by using the maximum entropy method in conscious rats. Its effect on baroreflex control of RSNA and heart rate were also investigated with a logistic function curve. Mean BP in magnesium-deficient rats was higher than that in control rats (mean+/-SE, 114.0+/-4.3 versus 101.6+/-3.4 mm Hg; P<0.05), and urinary excretion of catecholamine was increased by 2.4-fold. The fraction of low-frequency oscillation of RSNA was reduced (31.7+/-0.9% versus 36.2+/-1.5%, P<0.05) and the correlation between low-frequency oscillations of BP and RSNA was weakened in magnesium-deficient rats. There was no difference in high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval, which is related to vagal tone, whereas sympathetic tone became dominant (square root of low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of R-R interval, 1.00+/-0.05 versus 0.67+/-0.05, P<0.0001) in magnesium-deficient rats. The maximal gain in the BP-RSNA relation tended to be reduced in magnesium-deficient rats (-7.7+/-1.1% versus -12.2+/-1.9%/mm Hg, P=0. 07); however, that in the BP-heart rate relation was increased (-8. 1+/-0.7 versus -4.5+/-0.5 bpm/mm Hg, P<0.01). These results suggest that magnesium deficiency induces sympathetic excitation, which results in hypertension but attenuates the baroreflex-related response of sympathetic nerves, whereas magnesium deficiency enhances the sensitivity of the sinus node to autonomic regulation. (+info)
External hydrocephalus in primary hypomagnesaemia: a new finding.
This paper reports a new finding in two siblings with primary hypomagnesaemia as a result of renal magnesium wasting, namely, rapidly increasing head size. External hydrocephalus and brain shrinkage in primary hypomagnesaemia seen on computed tomography of the brain with reversibility after magnesium treatment has not been reported previously. (+info)
Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology.
Magnesium has an established role in obstetrics and an evolving role in other clinical areas, in particular cardiology. Many of the effects involving magnesium are still a matter of controversy. Over the next decade, it is likely that improvements in the measurement of magnesium, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms of its actions and further results of clinical studies will help to elucidate its role, both in terms of treating deficiency and as a pharmacological agent. (+info)
Ultrastructure of Achilles tendons of rats treated with ofloxacin and fed a normal or magnesium-deficient diet.
Fluoroquinolones can cause tendinitis and tendon rupture. However, toxicological as well as clinical information on quinolone-induced tendopathy is scarce. We performed extensive electron microscopic studies with Achilles tendon specimens from ofloxacin-treated rats. The drug was given at a dose of 1,200 mg/kg (body weight) orally. Juvenile Wistar rats received one or three oral doses each of 1,200 mg of ofloxacin/kg (body weight)/day. Three days after treatment, the tenocytes of their Achilles tendons showed degenerative alterations, such as multiple vacuoles and vesicles in the cytoplasm that had developed due to swellings and dilatations of cell organelles. Other indications of cell degradation were the occurrence of cell debris and cell detachment from the extracellular matrix accompanied by a loss of cell-matrix interaction. The tenocytes of juvenile Wistar rats that had been treated at day 36 with a single oral dose of 1,200 mg of ofloxacin/kg (body weight) and sacrificed either 3 or 6 months later exhibited similar degenerative alterations. The number of degenerative alterations of tenocytes after ofloxacin treatment was considerably higher in rats that had received a magnesium-deficient diet than in rats with normal magnesium status. Of the adult rats that had been treated once, 5 times, and 10 times with ofloxacin and killed 1 day later, only those with the 10-times treatment showed a significantly increased number of degeneratively altered tenocytes. In summary, effects observed in tendons show similar pathological features as described earlier in cartilage, indicating that quinolone-induced arthropathy and quinolone-induced tendopathy probably are different clinical manifestations of the same toxic effect on cellular components of connective tissue structures. (+info)