The impact of heavy passive smoking on arterial endothelial function in modernized Chinese.
OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated whether heavy exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) might damage arterial function in modernized Chinese. BACKGROUND: Heavy passive smoking is associated with arterial endothelial dysfunction in Caucasian, but not rural Chinese, subjects. METHODS: We studied 20 young (mean age 36.6 +/- 7.0 years) nonsmoking asymptomatic casino workers (9 men) in Macau who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for over 8 h/day for at least two years and 20 normal subjects (control subjects). These two groups were carefully matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, vessel diameter, cholesterol and glucose levels. Brachial artery diameter was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound at rest, after flow increase (causing flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator). RESULTS: Flow-mediated dilation (mean +/- SD% of diameter changes) was significantly lower in passive smokers (6.6 +/- 3.4%) compared with the controls (10.6 +/- 2.3%) (p < 0.0001). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation of the two groups were similar. Upon multivariate analysis, passive smoking exposure was the strongest independent predictor (beta = -0.59; p = 0.0001) for impaired flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (model R2 = 0.75, F value = 6.1, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In modernized Chinese, as in Caucasians, exposure to heavy environmental tobacco smoke causes arterial endothelial dysfunction, a key early event in atherosclerosis. This may have serious implications for cardiovascular health in China, currently in a process of rapid modernization. (+info)
Deleterious impact of "high normal" glucose levels and other metabolic syndrome components on arterial endothelial function and intima-media thickness in apparently healthy Chinese subjects: the CATHAY study.
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and carotid intima-media thickening are useful surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. However, because most studies reporting the relationships between endothelial function, intima-media thickness (IMT), and hyperglycemia have compared diabetic patients with healthy controls, we report their relationship with glycemia as a continuum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Brachial artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD]) and carotid IMT were measured noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound B-mode imaging in 228 apparently healthy Chinese subjects recruited from Hong Kong and Macau. FMD and IMT were significantly associated with increasing levels of glycemia, particularly in the "high normal" glycemic range, with IMT increasing and endothelium-independent dilatation decreasing linearly across the glucose tertiles, and endothelium-dependent dilatation significantly lower in the upper glucose tertile compared with the other 2 groups (P<0.01). Using multiple linear regression, fasting glucose level was identified as an independent predictor of each of these markers of vascular function (P<0.004). Additionally, other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, blood pressure, and an adverse lipid profile, were also related to levels of glycemia (P<0.05), further contributing to impaired vascular function. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of glycemia and the coexistence of other cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy subjects are adversely associated with arterial endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickening. (+info)
Comparisons of the incidence and pathological characteristics of prostate cancer between Chinese and Portuguese in Macau.
BACKGROUND: Aging of population in Macau has become a serious problem and we are diagnosing more and more patients with prostate cancer. To investigate the effect of ethnicity and environment on incidence of prostate carcinoma, we compared the difference of biopsy and postoperative pathology of prostate between indigenous Chinese (Chinese) and Chinese of Portuguese descent (Portuguese) with elevated serologic prostate specific antigen (PSA) and incidence of prostate carcinoma in Macau. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2006, prostate biopsy was performed in a random sample of 462 patients with elevated serologic PSA who, on followup, were diagnosed in this hospital with benign prostate hyperplasia. Of these, 416 were indigenous Chinese, 46 Portuguese. Based on demographic statistics by Macau government for 2005, we compared differences in incidences of prostate carcinoma, positive rate of random prostate biopsy in patients with elevated serologic PSA, factors related to serological PSA and pathological grade and stage between both ethnic groups. RESULTS: Prostate carcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy in 178 cases. Positive biopsies of prostate carcinoma were present in 160 Chinese with positive rate of 38.5% and in 18 Portuguese with 39.1%. For patients diagnosed with prostate carcinoma, there was no significant difference in age, incidence, grade of cancerous cells, stage of the disease, incidence of inflammation of prostatic tissues or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) related to elevated PSA between the groups (All P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in incidence or characteristics of prostate carcinoma between people of Portuguese and Chinese descent in Macau based on our limited data. Long term residence in the same environment may be associated with the incidence and progression of prostate carcinoma in Portuguese living in Macau, but further rigorous epidemiological investigation and analysis of risk factors about prostate carcinoma are needed to corroborate this conclusion. (+info)
A randomized trial comparing conventional swan-neck straight-tip catheters to straight-tip catheters with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inserting a straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter configured with a subcutaneous artificial swan neck. DESIGN: Clinical outcomes of conventional swan-neck straight-tip catheters and Tenckhoff straight-tip catheters implanted with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck were compared in a prospective randomized controlled trial in a single-center setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion were randomized to receive either a double-cuff straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter with an artificial subcutaneous swan-neck (TC) or a conventional double-cuff straight-tip swan-neck catheter (SN). The primary outcome was catheter exit-site infection rate; the secondary outcomes were catheter-related mechanical events and surgery-related bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 39 consecutive patients were enrolled: 20 into the TC group and 19 into the SN group. More exit-site infections were observed in the SN group than in the TC group, although the difference was not statistically significant (0.97 vs 0.51 episodes per patient-year, p = 0.0657). However, there were more peritonitis episodes in the TC group than in the SN group (0.35 vs 0.15 episodes per patient-year, p = 0.0256). Exit-site and main wound bleeding post surgery were generally mild and similar in the 2 groups. No events of dialysate leakage, catheter tip migration, or subcutaneous cuff protrusion were observed in patients of either group. Outflow failure due to mechanical causes occurred in 2 patients in the TC group and in 1 patient in the SN group during the intermittent peritoneal dialysis period; all were corrected successfully by laparoscopic omentectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of the double-cuff straight-tip Tenckhoff catheter configured with an artificial subcutaneous swan neck appears to be an effective and safe procedure. It may be a good alternative to the conventional swan-neck catheter. (+info)
An unusual cluster of HIV-1 B/F recombinants in an Asian population.
Clinical features of initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Macau, China.
BACKGROUND: The first case of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China was documented on June 18, 2009. Subsequently, persons with suspected infection or of contact with suspected cases received screening. All the confirmed cases were hospitalized and treated with oseltamivir. Their clinical features were observed. This may help for better management for later patients and be of benefit to the government of Macau SAR to adjust its strategy to combat the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection more efficiently. METHODS: From June to July 2009, the initial 72 cases of influenza A (H1N1) in Macau were hospitalized in Common Hospital Centre S. Januario (CHCSJ). The infection was confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The clinical features of the disease were closely observed and documented. Oseltamivir was given to all patients within 48 hours after the onset of disease and maintained for 5 days. RESULTS: The mean age of the 72 patients was 21 years old. Forty of them were men and 32 were women. The median incubation of the virus was 2 days (1 to 7 days). The most common symptoms were fever (97.2%) and cough (77.8%). The rate of gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea was 2.8%. Fever typically lasted for 3 days (1 to 9 days). The median time from the onset to positive results of real-time RT-PCR was 6 days (3 to 13 days). After treatment with oseltamivir, most patients became afebrile within 48 hours. Only one aged patient with a history of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was found to have lung infiltration on chest X-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The initial cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Macau SAR showed that most of the infected persons had a mild course. The virus could be detected by real-time RT-PCR within a median of 6 days from the onset. Oseltamivir was effective. (+info)
Survival analysis of 2003-2005 data from the population-based Cancer Registry in Macao.
AIM: Macao Cancer Registry was established in 2003. It is population-based and has been collecting cancer reports from all possible settings where pathological and management services are available. To get a better idea over the prognosis and survival of all and major cancer sites, a survival analysis was here performed to estimate the relative survival rates of cancers diagnosed and registered during 2003 to 2005 with a follow-up of vital status till 31 Dec, 2008. METHODS: 3,244 cancer cases diagnosed and registered during 2003-2005 in Macao Cancer Registry were considered for analysis. Cases of in-situ carcinoma, extreme age and poor data quality were deliberately excluded, leaving 2,623 newly diagnosed cancers eligible. Vital status of registered cases through 31 December 2008 was confirmed by matching with death certificates and review from the Hospital Information System (HIS) of the only public hospital. Observed survival rates were calculated using a Life Table method, and relative survival rates were examined using an algorithm written in SAS by Paul Dickman with minor adaptations. Apart from general relative survival rates, specific rates by sex and age strata were also estimated. RESULTS: 3-year and 5-year relative survival rates of all cancers were 61% and 56% respectively for both sexes; (54% and 47%, respectively, for males and 68% and 64%for females). The 3-year relative survival rates for major cancer sites ranged from 21% to 90%, with lung cancer showing the lowest and female breast cancer the highest. 5-year relative survival rates for major cancer sites ranged from 18% to 85%, with liver cancer showing the lowest and again female breast cancer the highest. Female cancer patients had higher relative survival than males across the 5-year follow up period, with a sex difference of nearly 15%. CONCLUSION: Comparison of survival rates from this first trial in Macao, deriving survival statistics from population-based cancer registration, with other Asian countries/cities, like Taiwan, Singapore and Japan, showed Macao and Taiwan to have the closest estimates for 3-year relative survival. Random variation was found to exist in the stratification of sex and age in certain cancer sites due to scarce case numbers in the subgroups. It is important to note that the 3-year survival rates are relatively more consistent and reliable than 4-year or 5-year ones. Promotion of reporting cancer stage by physicians as well as improvement in data quality of cancer registration are essential to allow further informative statistics derived from the cancer registry with reference to cancer prevention. (+info)
The role of Thailand in the international trade in CITES-listed live reptiles and amphibians.