A mutation in the ovine cathepsin D gene causes a congenital lysosomal storage disease with profound neurodegeneration.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) constitute a group of neurodegenerative storage diseases characterized by progressive psychomotor retardation, blindness and premature death. Pathologically, there is accumulation of autofluorescent material in lysosome-derived organelles in a variety of cell types, but neurons in the central nervous system appear to be selectively affected and undergo progressive death. In this report we show that a novel form of NCL, congenital ovine NCL, is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal aspartyl proteinase cathepsin D. A single nucleotide mutation in the cathepsin D gene results in conversion of an active site aspartate to asparagine, leading to production of an enzymatically inactive but stable protein. This results in severe cerebrocortical atrophy and early death, providing strong evidence for an important role of cathepsin D in neuronal development and/or homeostasis. (+info)
Cathepsin D deficiency induces lysosomal storage with ceroid lipofuscin in mouse CNS neurons.
Cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) mice have been shown to manifest seizures and become blind near the terminal stage [approximately postnatal day (P) 26]. We therefore examined the morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical features of CNS tissues of these mice. By electron microscopy, autophagosome/autolysosome-like bodies containing part of the cytoplasm, granular osmiophilic deposits, and fingerprint profiles were demonstrated in the neuronal perikarya of CD-/- mouse brains after P20. Autophagosomes and granular osmiophilic deposits were detected in neurons at P0 but were few in number, whereas they increased in the neuronal perikarya within days after birth. Some large-sized neurons having autophagosome/autolysosome-like bodies in the perikarya appeared in the CNS tissues, especially in the thalamic region and the cerebral cortex, at P17. These lysosomal bodies occupied the perikarya of almost all neurons in CD-/- mouse brains obtained from P23 until the terminal stage. Because these neurons exhibited autofluorescence, it was considered that ceroid lipofuscin may accumulate in lysosomal structures of CD-/- neurons. Subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase was found to accumulate in the lysosomes of neurons, although the activity of tripeptidyl peptidase-I significantly increased in the brain. Moreover, neurons near the terminal stage were often shrunken and possessed irregular nuclei through which small dense chromatin masses were scattered. These results suggest that the CNS neurons in CD-/- mice show a new form of lysosomal accumulation disease with a phenotype resembling neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. (+info)
Spinsters, synaptic defects, and amaurotic idiocy.
In this issue of Neuron, Sweeney and Davis present a beautiful characterization of Drosophila mutants in a gene named spinster. The results indicate a function of the endocytic pathway in regulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling at the Drosophila motor synapse. This study provides important new information at an intersection of several disciplines, including membrane traffic, lipid organization, synaptic signaling, and neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease. (+info)
Disruption of PPT2 in mice causes an unusual lysosomal storage disorder with neurovisceral features.
The palmitoyl protein thioesterase-2 (PPT2) gene encodes a lysosomal thioesterase homologous to PPT1, which is the enzyme defective in the human disorder called infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. In this article, we report that PPT2 deficiency in mice causes an unusual form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with striking visceral manifestations. All PPT2-deficient mice displayed a neurodegenerative phenotype with spasticity and ataxia by 15 mo. The bone marrow was infiltrated by brightly autofluorescent macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, but interestingly, the macrophages did not have the typical appearance of foam cells commonly associated with other lysosomal storage diseases. Marked splenomegaly caused by extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed. The pancreas was grossly orange to brown as a result of massive storage of lipofuscin pigments in the exocrine (but not islet) cells. Electron microscopy showed that the storage material consisted of multilamellar membrane profiles ("zebra bodies"). In summary, PPT2 deficiency in mice manifests as a neurodegenerative disorder with visceral features. Although PPT2 deficiency has not been described in humans, manifestations would be predicted to include neurodegeneration with bone marrow histiocytosis, visceromegaly, brown pancreas, and linkage to chromosome 6p21.3 in affected families. (+info)
Neuronal storage disease in a group of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).
A neuronal storage disease affecting 5 captive Humboldt penguins is described. One bird died after 3 days of lethargy and anorexia. The 4 remaining birds died after a slowly progressing course of disease with signs that included lethargy, weakness, and neurologic dysfunction. Neurologic signs included dysphagia and ataxia. Gross lesions in the first animal to die consisted of hepatosplenomegaly indicative of avian malaria, which was confirmed histologically. The 4 remaining animals were mildly to moderately emaciated. Moderate to marked vacuolation of the neuronal perikarya was observed in Purkinje cells, neurons of the brainstem nuclei, and motorneurons of the spinal cord in all birds. By electron microscopy the vacuoles represented multilayered concentric lamellar structures. These findings were indicative of sphingolipidosis. All animals had been prophylactically treated for avian malaria, aspergillosis, and possible bacterial infections with chloroquine, itraconazole, and enrofloxacin. Circumstantial evidence implicates chloroquine therapy as the possible cause of the storage disease. (+info)
Spontaneous and experimental glycoprotein storage disease of goats induced by Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa (Convolvulaceae).
Spontaneous and experimental poisoning with the swainsonine-containing and calystegine-containing plant Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa is described. Three of 8 goats presenting with emaciation, weakness, symmetrical ataxia, posterior paresis, proprioceptive deficits, abnormal posture, abnormal postural reaction, and muscle hypertonia were necropsied. I fistulosa was suspected to be the cause of the neurologic disease in all cases. An experiment was conducted to confirm the diagnosis using 12 goats and diets containing 3 different concentrations of the plant. All goats fed I fistulosa developed neurological signs that were similar to those observed in the spontaneous intoxication. Muscle atrophy and pallor were the only macroscopic changes observed in spontaneous and in experimental intoxication. Histological lesions of spontaneous and experimental animals were similar. The most prominent lesion was cytoplasmic vacuolation in neurons of the central and the autonomous nervous system, pancreatic acinar cells, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland, and macrophages of the lymphatic tissues. Neuronal necrosis, axonal spheroids formation, and astrogliosis were additionally observed in the brain. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic vacuoles consisted of distended lysosomes surrounded by a single-layered membrane. Nonreduced end-rests or sequence of alpha-Man, alpha-Glc, beta(1-4)-GlcNAc, and NeuNAc on lysosomal membrane were revealed by lectin histochemistry. Samples of plants used in the experimental trial contained swainsonine and calystegine and their intermediary derivate. We conclude that I fistulosa induces a glycoprotein storage disease primarily based on the inhibition of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase by the alkaloid swainsonine. (+info)
Enhanced lysosomal pathology caused by beta-synuclein mutants linked to dementia with Lewy bodies.
Two missense mutations (P123H and V70M) of beta-synuclein (beta-syn), the homologue of alpha-syn, have been recently identified in dementia with Lewy bodies. However, the mechanism through which these mutations influence the pathogenesis of dementia with Lewy bodies is unclear. To investigate the role of the beta-syn mutations in neurodegeneration, each mutant was stably transfected into B103 neuroblastoma cells. Cells overexpressing mutated beta-syn had eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies immunopositive for mutant beta-syn, and electron microscopy revealed that these cells were abundant in various cytoplasmic membranous inclusions resembling the histopathology of lysosomal storage disease. Consistent with these findings, the inclusion bodies were immunopositive for lysosomal markers, including cathepsin B, LAMP-2, GM2 ganglioside, and ATP13A2, which has recently been linked to PARK9. Notably, formation of these lysosomal inclusions was greatly stimulated by co-expression of alpha-syn, was dependent on the phosphorylation of alpha-syn at Ser-129, and was more efficient with the A53T familial mutant of alpha-syn compared with wild type. Furthermore, the inclusion formation in cells overexpressing mutant beta-syn and transfected with alpha-syn was significantly suppressed by treatment with autophagy-lysosomal inhibitors, which were associated with impaired clearance of syn proteins and enhanced apoptosis, indicating that formation of lysosomal inclusions might be protective. Collectively, the results demonstrated unambiguously that overexpression of beta-syn mutants (P123H and V70M) in neuroblastoma cells results in an enhanced lysosomal pathology. We suggest that these missense mutations of beta-syn might play a causative role in stimulating neurodegeneration. (+info)
A block of autophagy in lysosomal storage disorders.
Most lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. While LSDs were among the first inherited diseases for which the underlying biochemical defects were identified, the mechanisms from enzyme deficiency to cell death are poorly understood. Here we show that lysosomal storage impairs autophagic delivery of bulk cytosolic contents to lysosomes. By studying the mouse models of two LSDs associated with severe neurodegeneration, multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) and mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPSIIIA), we observed an accumulation of autophagosomes resulting from defective autophagosome-lysosome fusion. An impairment of the autophagic pathway was demonstrated by the inefficient degradation of exogenous aggregate-prone proteins (i.e. expanded huntingtin and mutated alpha-synuclein) in cells from LSD mice. This impairment resulted in massive accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and of dysfunctional mitochondria which are the putative mediators of cell death. These data identify LSDs as 'autophagy disorders' and suggest the presence of common mechanisms in the pathogenesis of these and other neurodegenerative diseases. (+info)