Increased exploratory activity and altered response to LSD in mice lacking the 5-HT(5A) receptor.
In order to determine the distribution and function of the 5-HT5A serotonin receptor subtype, we generated knockout mice lacking the 5-HT5A gene. Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and that are concentrated in the olfactory bulb, neocortex, and medial habenula. When exposed to novel environments, the 5A-KO mice displayed increased exploratory activity but no change in anxiety-related behaviors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of LSD on exploratory activity was attenuated in 5A-KO mice. These results suggest that 5-HT5A receptors modulate the activity of neural circuits involved specifically in exploratory behavior and suggest that some of the psychotropic effects of LSD may be mediated by 5-HT5A receptors. (+info)
Agonist-directed signaling of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors: differences between serotonin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
For more than 40 years the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been known to modify serotonin neurotransmission. With the advent of molecular and cellular techniques, we are beginning to understand the complexity of LSD's actions at the serotonin 5-HT2 family of receptors. Here, we discuss evidence that signaling of LSD at 5-HT2C receptors differs from the endogenous agonist serotonin. In addition, RNA editing of the 5-HT2C receptor dramatically alters the ability of LSD to stimulate phosphatidylinositol signaling. These findings provide a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism(s) of partial agonism. (+info)
Quantitative determination of LSD and a major metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, in human urine by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
An assay has been developed for quantitative determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and a major metabolite of LSD in human urine at concentrations as low as 10 pg/mL. In most LSD-positive urine samples the metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, is present at higher concentrations than LSD and can be detected for a longer time than LSD after ingestion of the drug. Urine samples are extracted using Varian Bond Elut Certify extraction cartridges. Confirmatory identification is accomplished by trimethylsilylation of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using positive ion chemical ionization and selected reaction monitoring. Commercially available lysergic acid methylpropylamide and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LAMPA are used as internal standards. With selected reaction monitoring, both compounds gave linear calibration curves from 10 pg/mL to 5000 pg/mL. Forty-nine human urine samples that had previously been shown to contain LSD were reanalyzed by the new method. These samples showed an average LSD concentration of 357 pg/mL and an average 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD concentration of 3470 pg/mL. Additional experiments using clinical samples in which two subjects were dosed with LSD support the conclusion that analysis for 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD can permit identification of LSD users for a longer period following ingestion than analysis for the parent drug. (+info)
Detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.
A confirmatory method for the detection and quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is presented. The method employs gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) using an internal ionization ion trap detector for sensitive MS-MS-in-time measurements of LSD extracted from urine. Following a single-step solid-phase extraction of 5 mL of urine, underivatized LSD can be measured with limits of quantitation and detection of 80 and 20 pg/mL, respectively. Temperature-programmed on-column injections of urine extracts were linear over the concentration range 20-2000 pg/mL (r2 = 0.999). Intraday and interday coefficients of variation were < 6% and < 13%, respectively. This procedure has been applied to quality-control specimens and LSD-positive samples in this laboratory. Comparisons with alternate GC-MS methods and extraction procedures are discussed. (+info)
RNA synthesis in isolated brian nuclei after administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in vivo.
RNA synthesis in isolated brain nuclei was analyzed 2.5 hr after the intravenous administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to young rabbits. The drug stimulated transcription by 54% in brain stem nuclei and by 13% in cerebral hemisphere nuclei expressed over saline controls. Both nucleoplasmic and nucleolar RNA synthesis were increased. The main activity in the isolated nuclei assay was due to nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase, since alpha-amanitin reduced synthesis by over 70% in either drug or control treatments. (+info)
The quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) in human urine specimens, a metabolite of LSD: comparative analysis using liquid chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.
This paper compares the potential forensic application of two sensitive and rapid procedures (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry) for the detection and quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) a major LSD metabolite. O-H-LSD calibration curves for both procedures were linear over the concentration range 0-8,000 pg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The observed limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for O-H-LSD in both procedures was 400 pg/mL. Sixty-eight human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were reanalyzed by both procedures for LSD and O-H-LSD. These specimens contained a mean concentration of O-H-LSD approximately 16 times higher than the LSD concentration. Because both LC methods produce similar results, either procedure can be readily adapted to O-H-LSD analysis for use in high-volume drug-testing laboratories. In addition, the possibility of significantly increasing the LSD detection time window by targeting this major LSD metabolite for analysis may influence other drug-free workplace programs to test for LSD. (+info)
Antagonism of a PCP drug discrimination by hallucinogens and related drugs.
Drugs such as PCP and MK-801 can cause psychotic reactions in humans by antagonizing NMDA receptors. This action is ultimately toxic to certain cortical neurons and may be one mechanism underlying neurodegenerative diseases, including schizophrenia. It has been reported that hallucinogens such as LSD, DOM, and DOI can block the neurotoxic effects of NMDA antagonists, possibly by activating inhibitory 5-HT2A receptors on GABAergic interneurons that normally inhibit glutamatergic projections to the retrosplenial and cingulate cortexes. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the extent to which similar drugs might also alter the behavioral effects of one NMDA antagonist, PCP. Rats were trained to discriminate this compound (2.5 mg/kg) from saline and were then given a series of antagonist tests. It was found that LSD (0.32 mg/kg) and DOM (4.0 mg/kg) blocked the PCP cue completely; DMT (8.0 mg/kg) and a structural congener of LSD, lisuride (LHM; 0.4 mg/kg), blocked the effects of PCP partially. The 5-HT/DA antagonists spiperone and ritanserin had no effect on the PCP cue. These data suggest that LSD, DOM, and, less effectively, DMT and LHM can block the behavioral as well as the neurotoxic effects of NMDA antagonists most likely through agonist actions at 5-HT2 receptors. (+info)
Characterization of [(125)I]-SB-258585 binding to human recombinant and native 5-HT(6) receptors in rat, pig and human brain tissue.
SB-258585 (4-Iodo-N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-benzen esulphonamide) is a high affinity ligand at 5-HT(6) receptors. It displays over 100 fold selectivity for the 5-HT(6) receptor over all other 5-HT receptors tested so far. SB-258585 has been radiolabelled, to high specific activity, for its characterization as a 5-HT(6) receptor selective radioligand. [(125)I]-SB-258585 bound, with high affinity, to a single population of receptors in a cell line expressing human recombinant 5-HT(6) receptors. Kinetic and saturation binding experiments gave pK(D) values of 9.01+/-0.09 and 9.09+/-0.02, respectively. In membranes derived from rat or pig striatum and human caudate putamen, [(125)I]-SB-258585 labelled a single site with high levels (>60%) of specific binding. Saturation analysis revealed pK(D) values of 8.56+/-0.07 for rat, 8.60+/-0.10 for pig and 8.90+/-0.02 for human. B(max) values for the tissues ranged from 173+/-23 and 181+/-25 fmol mg(-1) protein in rat and pig striatum, respectively, to 215+/-41 fmol mg(-1) protein in human caudate putamen. The pK(i) rank order of potency for a number of compounds, determined in competition binding assays with [(125)I]-SB-258585, at human caudate putamen membranes was: SB-271046>SB-258585>SB-214111>methiothepin>clozapine>5-Me-OT>5-HT>Ro 04-6790>mianserin>ritanserin=amitriptyline>5-CT>mesulergine. Similar profiles were obtained from pig and rat striatal membranes and recombinant 5-HT(6) receptors; data from the latter correlated well with [(3)H]-LSD binding. Thus, [(125)I]-SB-258585 is a high affinity, selective radioligand which can be used to label both recombinant and native 5-HT(6) receptors and will facilitate further characterization of this receptor subtype in animal and human tissues. (+info)