The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy.
AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease. (+info)
Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation. (+info)
67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma.
Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma when labeled with 1311. Radiometal-labeled antibodies provide higher tumor radiation doses than corresponding 1311 antibodies. 67Cu has an exceptional combination of properties desirable for radioimmunotherapy, including gamma and beta emissions for imaging and therapy, respectively, a biocompatible half-time and absence of pathways contributing to myelotoxicity. The radioimmunoconjugate, 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1, has been shown to be efficacious in nude mice bearing human Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) xenografts. Based on these results, a clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in patients with lymphoma was initiated. METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced stage 3 or 4 lymphoma were given a preload dose of unmodified Lym-1, then an imaging dose of 126-533 MBq (3.4-14.4 mCi) 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. Total Lym-1 ranged from 25 to 70 mg dependent on the specific activity of the radioimmunoconjugate and was infused at a rate of 0.5-1 mg/min. Imaging, physical examination, including caliper measurement of superficial tumors, and analysis of blood, urine and fecal samples were performed for a period of 6-13 d after infusion to assess pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression. RESULTS: In 7 patients, in whom superficial tumors had been accurately measured, tumors regressed from 18% to 75% (mean 48%) within several days of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 infusion. The uptake and biological half-time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors were greater than those of normal tissues, except the mean liver half-time exceeded the mean tumor half-time. The mean tumor-to-marrow radiation ratio was 32:1, tumor-to-total body was 24:1 and tumor-to-liver was 1.5:1. Images were of very good quality; tumors and normal organs were readily identified. Mild and transient Lym-1 toxicity occurred in 6 patients; 1 patient developed a human antimouse antibody. There were no significant changes in blood counts or serum chemistries indicative of radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: Because of the long residence time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors, high therapeutic ratios were achieved and, remarkably, numerous tumor regressions were observed after imaging doses. The results indicate considerable therapeutic potential for 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. (+info)
Second-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma.
Failure after first-line treatment was reported in 35-60% of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). There are currently no reports focusing on salvage therapy. This review analyses prognostic factors and the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data from papers reporting results of first-line treatment in 355 cases. The study group consisted of 173 patients presenting treatment failure. The interval between failure and death (TTD) was compared for age at relapse (< or =60 vs. >60 years), type of failure (relapse vs. progression), time to relapse (< or =12 vs. >12 months) and salvage treatment (yes vs no). Median TTD was similar in younger and older patients (P = 0.09). Relapsed patients had a longer TTD than patients with progressive disease (P = 0.002). Early relapse led to a shorter TTD than late relapse (P = 0.005). Median TTD was 14 months for patients who underwent salvage therapy and 2 months for untreated cases (P<0.00001). A multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for salvage therapy and time to relapse. Age and type of failure had no predictive value. Salvage therapy significantly improves outcome and, possibly, quality of life. As many different treatments were used conclusions cannot be made regarding an optimal treatment schedule. (+info)
Clinical presentation, course, and prognostic factors in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease: report from the European Task Force on Lymphoma Project on Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Disease.
PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) is both clinically and pathologically distinct from other forms of Hodgkin's disease, including classical Hodgkin's disease (CHD). However, large-scale clinical studies were lacking. This multicenter, retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and course of LPHD patients and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease (LRCHD) patients classified according to morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data and biopsy material of all available cases initially submitted as LPHD were collected from 17 European and American centers, stained, and reclassified by expert pathologists. RESULTS: The 426 assessable cases were reclassified as LPHD (51%), LRCHD (27%), CHD (5%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (3%), and reactive lesion (3%); 11% of cases were not assessable. Patients with LPHD and LRCHD were predominantly male, with early-stage disease and few risk factors. Patients with LRCHD were significantly older. Survival and failure-free survival rates with adequate therapy were similar for patients with LPHD and LRCHD, and were stage-dependent and not significantly better than stage-comparable results for CHD (German trial data). Twenty-seven percent of relapsing LPHD patients had multiple relapses, which is significantly more than the 5% of relapsing LRCHD patients who had multiple relapses. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease patients had significantly superior survival after relapse compared with LRCHD or CHD patients; however, this was partly due to the younger average age of LPHD patients. CONCLUSION: The two subgroups of LPHD and LRCHD bore a close clinical resemblance that was distinct from CHD; the course was similar to that of comparable nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity patients. Thorough staging is necessary to detect advanced disease in LPHD and LRCHD patients. The question of how to treat such patients, either by reducing treatment intensity or following a "watch and wait" approach, remains unanswered. (+info)
ESHAP as salvage therapy for refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Taiwan experience.
BACKGROUND: The ESHAP regimen, a combination of the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, methylprednisolone (solumedrol), high-dose cytarabine (ara-C) and cisplatin, has been shown to be active against refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in therapeutic trials. We were interested in determining whether this regimen would be effective and tolerable for Chinese patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkins lymphoma (23 intermediate-grade and nine high-grade) were enrolled in this study. Etoposide was administered at a dose of 40 mg/m2/day as a 1 h intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 4, solumedrol 500 mg/day was given as a 15 min intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 5, ara-C 2 g/m2 was given as a 2 h intravenous infusion on day 5 and cisplatin was given at a dose of 25 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion from day 1 to day 4. Clinical efficacy and toxicity were assessed on the basis of the WHO criteria. RESULTS: Ten patients (31.3%, 95% Cl 15.2-47.4%) attained complete remission (CR) and seven had partial remission (PR). The overall response rate was 53.1% (95% Cl 35.8-70.4%). In eight of the 10 CR patients, the remission lasted for more than 8 months. The remaining two patients had CR of 5 and 6 months. The median duration of CR was 12.2 months (range 5-22 months). Myelosuppression with subsequent infections was the major toxicity. Severe leukopenia (WBC < 1000/microliter) lasted for an average of 12 days and thrombocytopenia (< 25,000/microliter) 18 days. One patient (3.1%) died of neutropenia-associated sepsis within 4 weeks after treatment. Non-myeloid toxicities included alopecia in 66% (28% grade 2, 22% grade 3), stomatitis in 72% (25% grade 2, 28% grade 3, 13% grade 4), hepatotoxicity in 9% (3% grade 2), renal toxicity in 13% (6% grade 2, 3% grade 3) and infection in 56% (18% grade 2, 25% grade 3, 13% grade 4). The majority of the responders relapsed within 2 years after ESHAP treatment. Median survival for all patients was 8.6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ESHAP is an active and tolerable regimen in Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, but the duration of remission is brief and without significant impact on survival. (+info)
Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (FluCyD) combination is effective in pretreated low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
PURPOSE: Fludarabine phosphate is effective as a single agent in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Combined with other antineoplastic agents it enhances the antitumor effect. Our aim was to define the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (FluCyD) in patients with advanced low-grade lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five adults with pretreated advanced-stage low-grade NHL were treated with three-day courses of fludarabine 25 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2/day, and dexamethasone 20 mg/day, every four weeks for a maximum of six courses. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) responded, 8 (32%) achieving CR and 10 (40%) PR. Seven were failures. The median follow-up was 21 months (5-26). Eight CR patients remain in CR after 5-21 months. Of 10 PR patients, 3 are in continuous PR without further treatment after 12, 17 and 18 months. Myelosuppression was the most prevalent toxic effect. Although severe granulocytopenia (granulocyte count nadir < 500/microliter) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count nadir < 50,000/microliter) occurred in only 10% and 16% of courses, respectively, slow granulocyte or platelet count recovery caused delay of 40% of the courses. Nine patients (36%) required discontinuation of therapy because of persistent granulocytopenia and/or thrombocytopenia: three after one course, three after 2-4 courses, and three after five courses. Thirteen infectious episodes in 11 patients complicated 11% of courses. Two of 10 patients monitored for the circulating EBV load showed increased viral load. One of these developed aggressive lymphoma. CD4+ lymphocytes declined from a pre-therapy median value of 425/microliter to 141/microliter post-treatment (P = 0.001). Non-hematologic toxicities were rare and mild. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of fludarabine with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone is effective in pretreated advanced-stage low-grade NHL. It may broaden the range of therapeutic options in the salvage treatment of these patients. The main toxicity of this combination is prolonged myelosuppression that may cause treatment delay or withdrawal. The benefit of adding granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, particularly in patients with poor marrow reserve, needs to be investigated. (+info)
Is primary CNS lymphoma really becoming more common? A population-based study of incidence, clinicopathological features and outcomes in Alberta from 1975 to 1996.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is believed to be increasing in immunocompetent patients but this may not be universally true. The objective of this study was to determine in a population if the incidence of PCNSL is increasing, if the histologic subtypes are changing, and to describe the clinicopathologic and outcome characteristics of PCNSL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all Alberta residents with a histologic diagnosis of PCNSL from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1996 using the Alberta Cancer Registry. Annual age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR), clinicopathologic and outcome characteristics were determined. RESULTS: There were 50 immunocompetent PCNSL patients; the median age was 64 and 30 were male. Their median survival was 10.15 months. Histology was available for review in 37 (74%) patients: 19 (51%) were diffuse large cell, 16 (43%) were immunoblastic and 2 (5%) were unclassifiable malignant lymphomas. The ASIR ranged from 0.178-1.631/10(6) and no change in ASIR was found (test for trend, P = 0.26) for gender or age. The ASIR of malignant gliomas did not change either but increased for all other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (94.95-138.7610(6); test for trend, P = 0.0001) The number of brain biopsies increased from 1979-1985 (test for trend, P < 0.0001) but remained stable from 1986-1996 (test for trend, P = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike several other populations, PCNSL is not becoming significantly more common in Alberta. If this difference is real (i.e., not due to differences in cancer registry coding practices etc.) comparisons between Albertans and other populations in whom the incidence is rising may provide clues regarding the etiology of PCNSL. (+info)