(1/134) Lymphographic studies in acute lymphogranuloma venereum infection.
Lymphography, a radiological method of demonstrating lymphatic channels and nodes, has been used to investigate three cases of acute bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). There is general agreement that LGV has a predilection for lymphatic channels and lymph nodes. However, very little is known of the extent of lymph node involvement in the early bubonic stage and whether there is merely a lymphangitis or complete lymphatic obstruction. The present study was undertaken to determine the lymphographic appearance in acute bubonic LGV, the extent of lymphatic node involvement in early LGV, and the usefulness of the procedure in the management of LGV patients. The buboes were not outlined by this procedure. The vessel phase of the lymphogram appeared normal, while the nodal phase showed a gradient of pathological involvement from the inguinal region lessening towards the lumbar nodes. The main drawbacks of lymphography in LGV are the difficulty of visualizing the lymphatics in the negroid skin and the lack of diagnostic criteria for inflammatory diseases of the lymphatic system. The lymphographic findings in LGV as described here may be regarded as typical of LGV but cannot be accepted as specific for LGV with a high degree of confidence. It is suggested that the procedure could be used for monitoring patients with the severe and late sequelae of LGV infection. (+info)
(2/134) Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting as a rectovaginal fistula.
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a rare form of the sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the United States, there are fewer than 350 cases per year. In a review of the world's literature, there has not been a case reported in the last thirty years of a case of LGV presenting as a rectovaginal fistula. We present a case of an otherwise healthy American woman who presented with a rectovaginal fistula. Although uncommon, LGV does occur in developed countries and may have devastating tissue destruction if not recognized and treated before the tertiary stage. (+info)
(3/134) Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.
Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified. (+info)
(4/134) Chancroid, primary syphilis, genital herpes, and lymphogranuloma venereum in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Ulcer material from consecutive patients attending clinics in Antananarivo, Madagascar, was tested using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to detect Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus. Sera were tested for syphilis and for IgG and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by microimmunofluorescence testing (MIF). By M-PCR, 33% of 196 patients had chancroid, 29% had syphilitic ulcers, and 10% had genital herpes; 32% of the ulcer specimens were M-PCR negative. Compared with M-PCR, syphilis serology was 72% sensitive and 83% specific. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes was 93%, 53%, and 0% and specificity was 20%, 52%, and 99%, respectively. Less schooling was associated with increased prevalence of syphilitic ulcers (P=.001). Sixteen patients (8%) were clinically diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV); 1 plausible case of LGV was found by MIF. In Madagascar, primary care of genital ulcers should include syndromic treatment for syphilis and chancroid. (+info)
(5/134) Isolation in endothelial cell cultures of chlamydia trachomatis LGV (Serovar L2) from a lymph node of a patient with suspected cat scratch disease.
An inguinal lymph node, removed from a 21-year-old Romanian man suspected of having cat scratch disease, was sent to our laboratory for Bartonella culture. Lymph node specimens were inoculated on blood-enriched agar and in an endothelial cell culture system using the centrifugation shell vial technique. Bacteria were grown in cell monolayers and detected as positive with an anti-Bartonella henselae rabbit serum. However, such bacteria were identified as Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV serovar L2 by PCR sequencing techniques. Pathological examination of tissue biopsies was compatible with either lymphogranuloma venereum or cat scratch disease. The shell vial system is suitable for isolation of intracellular pathogens responsible for chronic lymphadenopathies, including C. trachomatis, Bartonella species, Francisella tularensis, and mycobacteria. However, care should be taken when identifying Chlamydia spp. and Bartonella spp. using polyclonal antibodies, since species of both genera have common antigens which are responsible for cross-reactions. (+info)
(6/134) Chlamydiae as agents of sexually transmitted diseases.
Chlamydiae are being increasingly recognized as an important cause of human disease. The known geographical distribution of lymphogranuloma venereum and the role of chlamydiae as agents of sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed. The presence of chlamydiae in the urethra and the cervix, and their etiological relationship to genital infections, first recognized in connexion with ocular infections, have been proved in a number of studies in selected populations in a few countries. Chlamydiae appear to be the most important agent of nongonococcal urethritis, which in some cases appears now to be more frequent than gonococcal urethritis. In addition to their association with cervicitis, chlamydiae appear also to be fairly frequent in the cervix of apparently normal, asymptomatic, and sexually active women. The role of chlamydiae as agents of other human diseases still requires to be clarified. The organisms have been found in association with pelvic inflammatory disease, neonatal pneumonia, pharyngitis, and otitis. There is need for additional studies in view of the fact that effective chemotherapy is available. An outline is given of laboratory methods that may be useful for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections. (+info)
(7/134) Direct detection and magnetic isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein-specific CD8+ CTLs with HLA class I tetramers.
We recently identified HLA class I-presented epitopes in the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis that elicit CTL responses in human genital tract infections. T cells possessing cytolytic activities specific for these epitopes could be detected following in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells with peptides. In the present study we used HLA-A2 tetramers for detailed characterization of MOMP-specific CTL responses. Ex vivo tetramer analysis detected MOMP-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals at significant frequencies (0.01-0.20% of CD8(+) T cells). After in vitro stimulation with peptides, the frequencies of MOMP peptide-specific T cells increased up to 2.34% of CD8(+) T cells in bulk cultures. In contrast, HLA-A2/MOMP tetramer-binding T cells were virtually undetectable in the peripheral blood from uninfected individuals, either ex vivo or after 3 wk of in vitro peptide stimulation of their T cells. Magnetically sorted, tetramer-bound T cells specifically lysed peptide-pulsed targets as well as C. trachomatis-infected epithelial cells with nearly 50-fold greater per cell efficiency than that of unsorted populations. This study provides conclusive evidence of in vivo induction of HLA class I-restricted CD8(+) CTL responses to C. trachomatis MOMP. Direct detection of these cells with tetramers will allow their further characterization without prior manipulation and facilitate monitoring of CTL responses during infections and in immunization trials with MOMP-based vaccines. (+info)
(8/134) Role of Bcl-2 family members in caspase-independent apoptosis during Chlamydia infection.
Infection with an obligate intracellular bacterium, the Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) strain or the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis serovar of Chlamydia psittaci, leads to apoptosis of host cells. The apoptosis is not affected by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, and caspase-3 is not activated in infected cells, suggesting that apoptosis mediated by these two strains of Chlamydia is independent of known caspases. Overexpression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bax, was previously shown to induce caspase-independent apoptosis, and we find that Bax is activated and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria in C. psittaci-infected cells. C. psittaci-induced apoptosis is inhibited in host cells overexpressing Bax inhibitor-1 and is inhibited through overexpression of Bcl-2, which blocks both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. As Bax and mitochondria are ideally located to sense stress-related metabolic changes emanating from the interior of an infected cell, it is likely that Bax-dependent apoptosis may also be observed in cells infected with other intracellular pathogens. (+info)