(1/74) Among diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich BCL and CD30+ anaplastic B-cell subtypes exhibit distinct clinical features.

BACKGROUND: The EORTC clinical trial 20901, activated in 1990, was designed to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of intermediate/high-grade malignancy according to the Working Formulation. Established in 1994, the R.E.A.L. Classification on NHL has now replaced all former classifications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reanalysed all cases (n = 273) documented by material available for review according to the R.E.A.L. Classification. In addition, we subdivided cases recognised as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into three morphologically distinct categories, namely, large cleaved DLBCL (LC-DLBCL), T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma (T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich BCL) and CD30+ DLBCL with anaplastic cell features (CD30+ DLBCL). Finally, T/NULL anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cases were subdivided into ALK+ and ALK- lymphomas. Review was performed independently by two pathologists from two different centres. RESULTS: DLBCL (61%), T/NULL ALCL (15%) and mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL, 50%) were the main NHL categories represented in the study. Fifty-seven of one hundred sixty DLBCL cases were further subclassified as LC-DLBCL (33 cases), T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich BCL (13 cases) or CD30+ DLBCL (11 cases). The remaining cases were indicated as unspecified DLBCL. A clinico-pathological correlation confirmed the findings of previous studies suggesting that MCL, DLBCL and ALCL represent distinct entities with MCL being characterised by a short survival, in contrast with the longer survival and less frequent progression typical of ALK+ compared to ALK- ALCL. Within DLBCL, T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich BCL showed distinctive features at presentation whereas CD30+ DLBCL showed a trend towards a more favourable prognosis, that might be comparable to that of ALK+ ALCL. CONCLUSIONS: Our data further support the usefulness of the R.E.A.L. Classification and illustrate the feasibility of DLBCL subtyping. Moreover, our results demonstrate the distinct clinical characteristics of T-cell-rich/histiocyte-rich BCL and CD30+ DLBCL with anaplastic cell features suggesting that they may represent clinico-pathologic entities.  (+info)

(2/74) Neutrophil-rich Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a study by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an accurate, cost-effective method of evaluating lymphomas. The neutrophil-rich variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (NR-ALCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma. To our knowledge, we present thefirst study of NR-ALCL by FNAB cytology. Histologic confirmation was available for both patients. Both cases were positive for Ki-1 (CD-30) and were either T-cell or null-cell phenotype. FNAB specimens were highly cellular with a single-cell pattern composed of pleomorphic tumor cells, "hallmark" tumor cells, and a background rich in neutrophils that occasionally obscured tumor cells. Diagnosis on FNAB is difficult owing to the rarity of this tumor, its resemblance to Hodgkin lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas that express CD30, its similarity to an infectious process, and its occasional confusion with metastatic carcinoma and melanoma. Reproducible cytologic features usually are present, and the diagnosis can be made conclusively by FNAB in conjunction with ancillary studies.  (+info)

(3/74) Subsets of null and gamma delta T-cell receptor+ T lymphocytes in the blood of young pigs identified by specific monoclonal antibodies.

Rat monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against isolated pig Null T cells were derived using a novel two-colour cytofluorometric assay. One (MAC320) identified all blood CD2-sIg- 'Null' cells (present at up to approximately 6 x 10(6)/ml). Another type (MAC319 and MAC318) identified a subset comprising approximately 60% or approximately 30% of the Null cell population. This percentage appears genetically determined. This subset partially overlapped with a gamma delta T-cell receptor+ (TcR+) population which consisted of approximately 40% of Null T cells. The antibodies did not react with other leucocyte or lymphocyte populations. In non-reducing conditions, MAC320 precipitated two molecules at approximately 270,000-280,000 MW in SDS-PAGE; the larger of which was also precipitated by MAC319 (and MAC318, which binds to the same epitope). Under reducing conditions, MAC320 immunoprecipitated two or three polypeptide chains at approximately 130,000-160,000 MW; MAC319 precipitated only the largest of these polypeptides. The large MAC319+ MAC320+ molecule on one subset is removed by bromelain treatment; the smaller MAC319- MAC320+ molecule on the remaining Null cells is not bromelain sensitive. Several properties of this new antigen complex specific to pig Null T cells show that it is distinct from the ruminant T19 complex.  (+info)

(4/74) Regulation of thymus size by competition for stromal niches among early T cell progenitors.

Thymic T cell production is characterized by differentiating waves of non-self-renewing, bone marrow-derived progenitors. The factors constraining new progenitor recruitment, intrathymic precursor expansion, and thymus size remain enigmatic, but are believed to be controlled by a feedback loop responding to lymphoid cellularity and competition for stromal niches. In this study, we show that competition for stromal niches does occur, but is solely limited to cells at the early CD4(-)8(-) precursor stages of differentiation. The overall size of the organ is determined both by this limitation on early precursor expansion, and by a second, cell-intrinsic limit on expansion of progenitor cells transiting to the CD4(+)8(+) stage. Together with asymmetric use of marrow-derived progenitors to reconstitute the intrathymic pool, these processes facilitate continuous generation of new T cells while maintaining a relatively stable organ size.  (+info)

(5/74) Murine splenic null cell compartment contains distinct haemopoietic subpopulations: enlargement of a myeloid and an undifferentiated subset with the development of splenomegaly in New Zealand black mice.

We have previously reported that non-T, non-B 'null' cells increase with age in New Zealand Black (NZB) mice resulting in splenomegaly. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing lineage-specific cell surface antigens we demonstrate four distinct subsets within this null cell compartment: (1) undifferentiated; (2) T lineage with undetectable Thy-1.2; (3) myeloid/erythroid; and (4) a pre-B/plasma cell type. All four subsets also occur in non-autoimmune mice. The frequency of these populations are similar in the young mice of all the strains examined, although the total number of null cells is higher in NZB. The elevation of null cells in young NZB mice is controlled by a single dominant gene in the genetic cross with New Zealand White (NZW) mice and does not appear closely related to the subsequent development of autoimmune disease. The proportion of myeloid/erythroid null cells increases with age in NZB as splenomegaly develops.  (+info)

(6/74) A novel germline mutation, 1793delG, of the MEN1 gene underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumors which comprise 1-2% of all lung tumors. They usually occur sporadically; however, their association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome has been documented. We report a case of a Thai woman with a pulmonary carcinoid tumor and a null cell pituitary tumor. Her family history was unremarkable for any MEN-related lesions. Genetic testing revealed a novel deletion mutation at exon 10 (1793delG) of the MEN1 gene, resulting in a stop codon 26 amino acids downstream. This mutation is predicted to cause a loss of the second nuclear localization signal of the menin protein.  (+info)

(7/74) Subclinical adenomas in postmortem pituitaries: classification and correlations to clinical data.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine pituitary adenomas in a series of postmortem pituitaries by use of modern technologies of immunostaining, to classify the adenomas according to the current WHO classification and to analyse the possible associations to the available clinical data. METHODS: In this study, pituitaries of 3048 autopsy cases obtained from autopsy series of the years 1991-2004 were examined. RESULTS: A total of 334 pituitary adenomas were found in 316 pituitaries. One hundred and thirty-two sparsely granulated prolactin cell adenomas (39.5%), 75 null cell adenomas (22.5%) and 31 oncocytomas were diagnosed. Forty-six ACTH cell adenomas (13.8%, 27 densely granulated, 19 sparsely granulated) and one adenoma composed of Crooke's cells were detected. Twenty-two gonadotroph cell adenomas (6.6%), seven GH cell adenomas (four sparsely granulated, three densely granulated), one mixed GH cell-PRL cell adenoma, two TSH cell adenomas, five plurihormonal adenoma type I, four plurihormonal adenoma type II and two alpha-subunit-only adenomas were seen. Six adenomas remained unclassified because the tissue was not contained in all sections for immunohistochemistry. Seventeen pituitaries included multiple tumours. The overall tumour size ranged from 0.1 to 20 mm in diameter. Among 76 adenomas (22.7%), which had a tumour size of > or = 3 mm, only three tumours were macroadenomas corresponding to a tumour size of more than 10 mm. The evaluation of the available clinical data showed 99 cases of hypertension, 65 cases of diabetes mellitus, six patients with hyperthyroidism and four with hypothyroidism. No symptoms of adenohypophyseal hormone hypersecretion were reported. The statistical correlations to clinical data were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Adenomas in postmortem pituitaries differ from those in surgical series in proportion of adenoma types and biological behaviour.  (+info)

(8/74) Skewed distribution of proinflammatory CD4+CD28null T cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

Expanded populations of CD4+ T cells lacking the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (CD4+CD28null T cells) have been reported in several inflammatory disorders. In rheumatoid arthritis, increased frequencies of CD4+CD28null T cells in peripheral blood have previously been associated with extra-articular manifestations and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, but their presence in and contribution to joint manifestations is not clear. In the present article we investigated the distribution of CD4+CD28null T cells in the synovial membrane, synovial fluid and peripheral blood of RA patients, and analysed the association with erosive disease and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. CD4+CD28null T cells were infrequent in the synovial membrane and synovial fluid, despite significant frequencies in the circulation. Strikingly, the dominant TCR-Vbeta subsets of CD4+CD28null T cells in peripheral blood were often absent in synovial fluid. CD4+CD28null T cells in blood and synovial fluid showed specificity for HCMV antigens, and their presence was clearly associated with HCMV seropositivity but not with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in the serum or synovial fluid, nor with erosive disease. Together these data imply a primary role for CD4+CD28null T cells in manifestations elsewhere than in the joints of patients with HCMV-seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)