(1/2078) Inhibition of allorecognition by a human class II MHC-derived peptide through the induction of apoptosis.

The interaction of the T-cell receptor with the major histocomatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complex is central to T-cell activation. Variation in the nature of the peptide bound within the groove of the MHC molecule may result in an altered T-cell response. Because some naturally processed peptides bound within the groove of the class II MHC molecule are derived from the MHC molecules themselves, we studied the inhibitory effects of synthetic class II MHC peptides on alloimmune responses in vitro. Three peptides derived from a highly conserved region of the class II MHC alpha chains inhibited the rat mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) in a dose-dependent manner, with the human HLA-DQA1 peptide also inhibiting the human and mouse MLR. No effect was seen on mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation. HLA-DQA1 inhibited cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in a dose-response fashion, with no reduction in preformed CTL killing, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is targeted at CD4(+) T-cell function. Cell-cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that restimulation of primed T cells in the presence of HLA-DQA1 resulted in increased apoptosis, whereas unstimulated cells were not affected. These data demonstrate that synthetic peptides derived from highly conserved regions of the class II MHC alpha chain can alter CD4(+) T-lymphocyte alloimmune responses in vitro, and this effect is mediated by the induction of apoptosis in activated T cells.  (+info)

(2/2078) Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor.

Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy.  (+info)

(3/2078) Brasilicardin A, a new terpenoid antibiotic from pathogenic Nocardia brasiliensis: fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

A novel tricyclic diterpenoid antibiotic, brasilicardin A, was isolated from the culture broth of Nocardia brasiliensis IFM 0406. The antibiotic exhibited immunosuppressive activity in a mouse mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay system and its IC50 value was 0.057 microg/ml. Although the inhibitory activity of cyclosporin A (CyA) against IL-2 production was confirmed in the MLR assay system, brasilicardin A did not have the activity. The results of in vitro toxicity testing of brasilicardin A against various human cell lines were compared with those of CyA.  (+info)

(4/2078) IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

IC202A, a new immunosuppressive compound, was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. It showed a suppressive effect on mixed lymphocyte culture reaction with an IC50 value of 3.6 microg/ml and mitogen induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in vitro.  (+info)

(5/2078) Development of CD8+ effector T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.

We investigated the effects of IL-18 on the development of CD8+ effector T cells in DBA/2 anti-BDF1 whole spleen cell MLC and compared the results with those of IL-12. Addition of IL-18 to the MLC resulted in a twofold increase in CD8/CD4 ratios compared with the control cultures when cells were expanded in IL-2-containing medium following MLC. Purified CD8+ T cells recovered from the IL-18-stimulated MLC produced 20- to 30-fold more IFN-gamma after secondary stimulation with C57BL/6 spleen cells or anti-CD3 mAb, and exhibited strong allospecific CTL activity. Neither IL-18 nor IL-18-supplemented culture supernatants from DBA/2 anti-BDF1 MLC induced type I CD8+ effector T cells when purified CD8+ T cells were used as responder cells in primary MLC. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell depletion from the responder cells abrogated the IL-18-induced increase in secondary IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells, suggesting that IL-18-induced type I effector CD8+ T cell development was CD4+ T cell dependent. In marked contrast, adding IL-12 to primary MLC decreased CD8/CD4 ratios by 50% and suppressed secondary IFN-gamma production and CTL activity by CD8+ T cells regardless of concentration, whereas Th1 development was promoted by IL-12. Moreover, both IL-12 and IL-18 efficiently induced type I CD8+ effector T cells in C57BL/6 anti-BDF1 MLC. These findings show that IL-18 plays an important role in the generation of type I CD8+ effector T cells, and further suggest that functional maturation of CD8+ T cells is differentially regulated by IL-18 and IL-12.  (+info)

(6/2078) T cell repertoire alterations of vascularized xenografts.

The role of T cells in the rejection of vascularized xenografts has been little explored. Because of the high potential diversity of xenoantigens, it has been suggested that xenotransplantation could induce a strong cellular response that could contribute to delayed rejection. Alternatively, alterations in molecular interactions could impair the T cell response. Because the analysis of TCR repertoire in vivo indirectly reflects the nature and the magnitude of T cell xenorecognition, we took advantage of the possibility of obtaining long term survival of hamster heart xenografts in rat recipients treated with a combination of cobra venom factor and cyclosporin A (CsA), to analyze T cell infiltration and, for the first time, V beta TCR usage, at the complementarity-determining region 3 level, in accommodated and rejected xenografts, compared with allografts. After withdrawal of CsA (on day 40), the analysis of V beta family expression and corresponding complementarity-determining region 3 lengths in rejected xenografts revealed a Gaussian pattern, in contrast to a much more restricted pattern in rejected allografts (p = 0.002), suggesting that, after withdrawal of CsA, all the underrepresented T cell clones are rapidly expanded in xenografts. These results correlate with the rapid kinetics of rejection (4 +/- 1 days), the high number of T cells, the rapid expression of markers of activation (IL-2 receptor alpha-chain and class II receptor), and the strong deposit of IgG Abs in rejected xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest that the intensity and diversity of the T cell response to xenografts could be stronger than the response to allografts in vivo.  (+info)

(7/2078) Expression of the nlsLacz gene in dendritic cells derived from retrovirally transduced peripheral blood CD34+ cells.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gene transfer and expression of exogenous genetic information coding for an immunogenic protein in antigen presenting cells (APCs) can promote an immune response. This was investigated by retroviral transfer of a marker gene into CD34+ derived APCs. DESIGN AND METHODS: To achieve long term expression of a specific transgene in APCs, G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell populations were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial nlsLacZ, a marker gene used here as a model, in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF and SCF prior to being induced to differentiate into dendritic and macrophage cells by GM-CSF and TNF-a. RESULTS: Addition of IL-4 was found to induce dendritic differentiation preferentially by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of the macrophage lineage. As assessed by X-Gal staining, LacZ gene expression was observed in cells from both the dendritic lineage (CD1a+/CD14-) which still exhibits the highest immunostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte reaction and from the macrophage lineage (CD1a-/ CD14+). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study sets out the possibility of transducing dendritic and macrophage progenitors present in the CD34+ cell population and in using a marker gene such as nlsLacZ to study gene expression in antigen presenting cell compartments.  (+info)

(8/2078) Aberrant CD3- and CD28-mediated signaling events in cord blood T cells are associated with dysfunctional regulation of Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity.

There have been numerous reports of decreased acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in patients receiving HLA-matched or HLA-disparate umbilical cord transplants. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the low incidence of GVHD in umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT). In this study, we examined CD3- and CD28-mediated functional properties and signaling events in CB T cells (CBTCs). Dual stimulation of peripheral blood TCs (PBTCs) and bone marrow TCs (BMTCs) with mAbs to CD3- and CD28-induced expressions of Fas ligand (FasL), as well as CD25 and CD154 (CD40L), whereas defective induction of these activation-associated cell surface molecules were observed in CBTCs. Engagement of both CD3 and CD28 induced FasL-mediated cytotoxicity in peripheral blood TCs (PBTCs) but not CBTCs; however, both of these tissue sources possess intrinsically similar proliferative responsiveness. Analysis of CD3- and CD28-induced signal transduction revealed a deficiency in signaling events that involved repressed tyrosine phosphorylation and enzymatic activities of a family of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and p38mapk, as well as p56lck and ZAP-70 in CBTCs compared with those in PBTCs. These results suggest that CD3- and CD28-mediated signaling events blockage in CBTCs may be responsible for dysfunction of FasL-mediated cytotoxicity and lead to the low incidence of severe GVHD in CBT.  (+info)