5-HT decreases contractile and electrical activities in lymphatic vessels of the guinea-pig mesentery: role of 5-HT 7-receptors.
1 Constriction measurements and intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed in vitro on lymphatic vessels isolated from the guinea-pig mesentery to investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) affected lymphatic pumping and smooth muscle membrane potential. 2 5-HT decreased in a concentration-dependent manner the frequency of constrictions induced by intraluminal vessel perfusion. In nonperfused vessels, 5-HT hyperpolarized the lymphatic smooth muscle membrane potential and decreased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs). 3 The actions of 5-HT were significantly reversed by the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine (SB269970, 0.5 micro M) and by the 5-HT(1/2/5/7) receptor antagonists methysergide (0.5 micro M), and were mimicked by the 5-HT(1/7)-receptor agonist, 5-CT. 4 The 5-HT(4)-receptor antagonists 1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid [1-2-[(methyl sulfonyl) amino] ethyl-4-piperidinyl] methyl ester (GR113808, 1 micro M) and (1-piperidinyl) ethyl 1H-indole 3-carboxylate (SB203186, 1 micro M) did not significantly affect the 5-HT-induced responses. The 5-HT(4)-receptor agonist 1-(4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-phenyl)-3-[1-(2-methylsulfonylamino) ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-1-propanone hydrochloride (RS67506) decreased the constriction frequency, albeit only at 50 micro M and without affecting the smooth muscle membrane potential. 5 Responses to 5-HT were attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro L-arginine (100 micro M), whereas indomethacin (10 micro M) and tetrodotoxin (1 micro M) were without effects. 6 5-HT-induced responses were inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, glibenclamide (10 micro M) and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromociannamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide-dichloride (H89, 10 micro M) blocked the hyperpolarization. 7 These results suggest that 5-HT modulates the rate of lymphatic vessel pumping by eliciting K(ATP) channel-mediated smooth muscle hyperpolarization and decrease in STD activity, which appear to be mediated by activation of 5-HT(7) receptors coupled to cAMP production. (+info)
CD9 expression on lymphatic vessels in head and neck mucosa.
CD9, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is involved in cell adhesion, migration, and tumor metastasis. Little is known about its vascular expression pattern. In this study, we investigated CD9 expression on endothelial cells in the mucosa of the head and neck and compared it with vascular tumors. Using immunohistochemistry, expression of CD9 was studied in 17 samples of head and neck mucosa and skin (laryngeal mucosa: n = 2, oral: n = 6, and epidermis: n = 9) and a variety of vascular tumors (lymphangiomas: n = 9, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: n = 4, hemangiomas: n = 7, angiosarcomas: n = 5, and Kaposi's sarcomas: n = 7) and compared with the expression of CD34 and PAL-E (blood vessel markers) and the lymphatic marker podoplanin. Regular lymphatic endothelium and lymphangiomas were strongly positive for CD9 and podoplanin but were mostly negative for PAL-E and CD34. By contrast, blood vessel endothelium and hemangiomas were strongly positive for PAL-E and CD34 but were mostly negative for CD9 and podoplanin. Weak to moderate CD9 reactivity was also observed on EC of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, angiosarcomas, and Kaposi's sarcomas. Expression of CD9 by lymphatic EC was confirmed by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analyses. CD9 may be useful as a marker for lymphatic EC. It could promote the adherence of inflammatory and tumor cells to lymphatic EC and participate in the growth and maintenance of the lymphatic capillary net. (+info)
Lymphatic endothelium: morphological, molecular and functional properties.
The lymphatic microvasculature is uniquely adapted for the continuous removal of interstitial fluid and proteins, and is an important point of entry for leukocytes and tumor cells. The traditional view that lymphatic capillaries are passive participants in these tasks is currently being challenged. This overview highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and function of lymphatic vessels. (+info)
ET-1-associated vasomotion and vasospasm in lymphatic vessels of the guinea-pig mesentery.
In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the actions of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on vasomotion and vasospasm in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics. ET-1 modulated lymphatic vasomotion independent of the endothelium, with lower concentrations (or=100 nm) causing vasospasm. ET-1-induced increases in vasomotion were accompanied by an increase in tonic [Ca2+]i. These actions were inhibited by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 (1 microm), the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 (5 microm), removal of extracellular Ca2+, chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA/AM (10 microm), the store Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 microm), caffeine (10 mm) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blocker heparin and 2-APB (30 microm). In contrast, the ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 (1 microm), ryanodine (1 & 20 microm), pertussis toxin (PTx) or Cs+ had no significant actions on vasomotion or the magnitude of increase in tonic [Ca2+]i. ET-1-induced vasospasm was accompanied by a transient increase in smooth muscle [Ca2+]i followed by a sustained plateau, an action that was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, but only marginally inhibited by nifedipine (1 microm). Caffeine (10 mm), SKF 96165 (30 microm) or U73122 (5 microm) together with nifedipine (1 microm) abolished ET-1-induced vasospasm and increase in [Ca2+]i. These results indicate that ET-1 increases lymphatic vasomotion by acting on smooth muscle ETA receptors and activation of G-protein-PLC-IP3 cascade, which is known to cause pacemaker Ca2+ release and resultant pacemaker potentials. High concentrations of ET-1 cause a failure in Ca2+ homeostasis causing vasospasm, triggered by excessive Ca2+ influx primarily through store-operated channels (SOCs) with l-Ca2+ voltage-operated channels (VOCs) also contributing, but to a much lesser extent. (+info)
Distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal and arthritic human synovial tissues.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium. METHODS: Synovial tissues from 5 normal controls, 14 patients with RA, and 16 patients with OA were studied. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and recognised blood vessel endothelial markers (factor VIII, CD34, CD31). RESULTS: Lymphatic vessels were found in all zones of the normal, OA, and RA synovial membrane. Few lymphatic vessels were seen in the sublining zone in normal and OA synovium which did not show villous hypertrophy. However, in both RA synovium and OA synovium showing villous hypertrophy and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, numerous lymphatic vessels were seen in all zones of the synovial membrane, including the sublining zone of the superficial subintima. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphatic vessels are present in normal and arthritic synovial tissues and are more numerous and prominent where there is oedema and an increase in inflammatory cells in the subintima, particularly in RA. This may reflect increased transport of hyaluronan and leucocyte trafficking in inflamed synovial tissues. (+info)
Origins and pathways of fluid entering sublobular lymphatic vessels in cat livers.
The liver, which produces a large volume of lymph, has a lymphatic system which can be classified into three categories: portal, sublobular, and superficial lymphatic vessels. As little is known about the origin and pathways of sublobular lymph, this study demonstrates pathways of interstitial fluid flowing into sublobular lymphatic vessels. Livers from cats whose thoracic ducts were either ligated or non-ligated were examined by light-, transmission electron- and scanning electron-microscopy (SEM). Complete ligation of the thoracic duct caused significant dilation of the hepatic sinusoids, the space of Disse, and channels passing through the limiting plate. Sublobular interstitial space and sublobular lymphatic vessels were also expanded. The channels between hepatocytes forming the limiting plate contained collagen fibers, and connected the space of Disse with a sublobular interstitial space. The alkali-water maceration/SEM confirmed that collagen fibers traversing the layer of the limiting plate independently of blood vessels connected collagen fibers in the space of Disse with those in the sublobular space. Complete ligation of the thoracic duct also showed an accumulation of mast cells and plasma cells in the sublobular interstitial space. Our data suggest that fluid in the space of Disse flows along collagen fibers in channels traversing the limiting plate as well as those along the sinusoids and central veins that drain into sublobular veins, and enters the sublobular interstitial space to finally lead into sublobular lymphatic vessels. Our study has also shown that hepatic lymphostasis causes the accumulation of mast cells and plasma cells in the sublobular interstitial space, which may be involved in lymphangiogenesis and fibrogenesis. (+info)
Lymphatic neoangiogenesis in human kidney transplants is associated with immunologically active lymphocytic infiltrates.
Renal transplant rejection is caused by a lymphocyte-rich inflammatory infiltrate that attacks cortical tubules and endothelial cells. Immunosuppressive therapy reduces the number of infiltrating cells; however, their exit routes are not known. Here a >50-fold increase of lymphatic vessel density over normal kidneys in grafts with nodular mononuclear infiltrates is demonstrated by immunohistochemistry on human renal transplant biopsies using antibodies to the lymphatic endothelial marker protein podoplanin. Nodular infiltrates are constantly associated with newly formed, Ki-67-expressing lymphatic vessels and contain the entire repertoire of T and B lymphocytes to provide specific cellular and humoral alloantigenic immune responses, including Ki-67(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, S100(+) dendritic cells, and Ki-67(+)CD20(+) B lymphocytes and lambda- and kappa-chain-expressing plasmacytoid cells. Numerous chemokine receptor CCR7(+) cells within the nodular infiltrates seemed to be attracted by secondary lymphatic chemokine (SLC/CCL21) that is produced and released by lymphatic endothelial cells in a complex with podoplanin. From these results, it is speculated that lymphatic neoangiogenesis not only contributes to the export of the rejection infiltrate but also is involved in the maintenance of a potentially detrimental alloreactive immune response in renal transplants and provides a novel therapeutic target. (+info)
Role of lymphangiogenic factors in tumor metastasis.
Nearly four centuries after the discovery of lymphatic vessels, the molecular mechanisms underlying their development are beginning to be elucidated. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D, via signaling through VEGFR-3, appear to be essential for lymphatic vessel growth. Observations from clinicopathological studies have suggested that lymphatic vessels serve as the primary route for the metastatic spread of tumor cells to regional lymph nodes. Recent studies in animal models have provided convincing evidence that tumor lymphangiogenesis facilitates lymphatic metastasis. However, it is not clear how tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis is regulated, and little is known about how tumor cells escape from the primary tumor and gain entry into the lymphatics. This review examines some of these issues and provides a brief summary of the recent developments in this field of research. (+info)