(1/851) Ki-1 (CD30)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, sarcomatoid variant accompanied by spontaneously regressing lymphadenopathy.
Although it has been reported that primary Ki-1 (CD30)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the skin may undergo spontaneous regression, it is rare for ALCL without cutaneous involvement to have spontaneously regressing lymphadenopathy. We report a case of sarcomatoid variant of ALCL accompanied by spontaneously regressing lymphadenopathy. The patient had gastric and pulmonary involvement of ALCL in addition to systemic lymphadenopathy, but with no cutaneous involvement. The lymphadenopathy spontaneously improved gradually during a period of one month without any treatment. At the same time, multiple small nodules in both lung fields decreased on chest computed tomography and multiple elevated gastric tumors with dimples were endoscopically recognized to have improved. He has since been treated with combination chemotherapy because of recurrence of the lymphadenopathy. (+info)
(2/851) Angiogenesis extent and macrophage density increase simultaneously with pathological progression in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Node biopsies of 30 benign lymphadenopathies and 71 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) were investigated for microvessel and macrophage counts using immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis. Both counts were significantly higher in B-NHL. Moreover, when these were grouped into low-grade and high-grade lymphomas, according to the Kiel classification and Working Formulation (WF), statistically significant higher counts were found in the high-grade tumours. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed a close spatial association between microvessels and macrophages. Overall, the results suggest that, in analogy to what has already been shown in solid tumours, angiogenesis occurring in B-NHLs increases with tumour progression, and that macrophages promote the induction of angiogenesis via the release of their angiogenic factors. (+info)
(3/851) Adrenergic innervation in reactive human lymph nodes.
Several experimental models have demonstrated that the central nervous system is functionally linked to the immune system by means of the autonomic nervous system. Samples of 36 lymph nodes of patients whose ages ranged from 16 to 69 y were studied. In order to demonstrate the existence and distribution of sympathetic nerve fibres, a polyclonal antibody antityrosine hydroxylase (TH), with the streptavidin-biotin system of detection, was used. TH-positive nerve fibres appeared in all reactive patterns of the lymph nodes studied. Thin nerve fascicles ramified at the hilar region and also in the connective tissue septae. Adventitial adrenergic nerve fibres were found following afferent, and to a lesser extent, efferent blood vessels. Another source of incoming nerve fibres was found at capsular level, accompanying blood vessels. On the arterial side, the innervation ceased before reaching the follicular arterioles. Our demonstration of innervation in postcapillary venules could support a regulatory role of adrenergic neurotransmitters in lymphocyte traffic. Occasional nerve fibres were also seen in T areas among parenchymatous cells. These findings confirm the existence of sympathetic innervation in human lymph nodes, and provide indirect evidence that the psychoneuroimmune axis could also exist in humans. (+info)
(4/851) The prevalence and CT appearance of the levator claviculae muscle: a normal variant not to be mistaken for an abnormality.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The levator claviculae muscle is an infrequently recognized variant in humans, occurring in 2% to 3% of the population, and has rarely been reported in the radiologic or anatomic literature. The importance of this muscle to radiologists is in distinguishing it from an abnormality; most commonly, cervical adenopathy. After discovering this muscle on the CT scans of two patients during routine clinical examinations, we conducted a study to determine the prevalence and appearance of the muscle on CT studies. METHODS: We evaluated 300 CT scans that adequately depicted the expected location of the muscle. The most superior level in which the muscle could be identified and the apparent location of insertion on the clavicle were recorded for all subjects in whom the muscle was detected. RESULTS: Seven levator claviculae muscles were identified in six subjects (2%). It was bilateral in one, on the left in four, and on the right in one. It was identified up to the level of the transverse process of C3 in all cases. The insertion was the middle third of the clavicle for two muscles and the lateral third of the clavicle for the remaining five muscles. CONCLUSION: Because the levator claviculae muscle will most likely be encountered during a radiologist's career, it is important to recognize this muscle as a variant and not as an abnormality. (+info)
(5/851) Primary Sjogren's syndrome in the North East of England: a long-term follow-up study.
OBJECTIVE: Although primary Sjogren's syndrome is often a benign condition, characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, some patients develop systemic features. We have previously found that anti-Ro antibodies identified patients with more systemic disease, with increased incidence of parotid swelling, lymphadenopathy and lymphoma. METHODS: We have followed up a cohort of 100 patients over 10 yr, to establish whether the phenotypic expression of disease changed, and whether the different autoantibody patterns expressed at presentation could be used to predict outcome. RESULTS: While seronegative patients (ANA, RF, Ro and La negative) remained polysymptomatic, they did not develop systemic complications or serological changes. Thirty-nine per cent of ANA- or RF-positive patients who were negative for Ro and La were given revised diagnoses over the follow-up period, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease and scleroderma. Parotid swelling and lymphadenopathy were more common in Ro/La-positive patients, where the relative risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 49.7. CONCLUSION: Both HLA B8 and DR3 were present in 79% of Ro/La-positive patients, but were found together in only 4% of seronegative patients, supporting the view that these clinical subgroups of primary Sjogren's syndrome are both serologically and immunogenetically distinct. Patients who are initially autoantibody (including Ro and La) negative do not evolve into 'systemic' Sjogren's syndrome or other connective tissue diseases. (+info)
(6/851) A central role for alpha beta T cells in the pathogenesis of murine lupus.
We have previously shown that female transgenic mice expressing IFN-gamma in the epidermis, under the control of the involucrin promoter, develop inflammatory skin disease and a form of murine lupus. To investigate the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we generated female IFN-gamma transgenic mice congenitally deficient in either alpha beta or gamma delta T cells. TCR delta-/- transgenics continued to produce antinuclear autoantibodies and to develop severe kidney lesions. In contrast, TCR beta-/- IFN-gamma transgenic mice failed to produce antinucleosome, anti-dsDNA, or antihistone autoantibodies, and kidney disease was abolished. Both alpha beta- and gamma delta-deficient transgenics continued to develop IFN-gamma-associated skin disease, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. The data show that the autoantibody-mediated pathology of murine lupus in IFN-gamma transgenic mice is completely alpha beta T cell dependent and that gamma delta T cells cannot drive autoantibody production. These results imply that production of antinuclear autoantibodies in IFN-gamma transgenic animals is Ag driven, and we identified clusters of apoptotic cells in the epidermis of the mice as a possible source of self Ags. Our findings emphasize the relevance of this murine lupus model to the human disease. (+info)
(7/851) Cladribine activity in adult langerhans-cell histiocytosis.
Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (LCH) results from the accumulation of tissue histiocytes derived from the same progenitor cells as monocytes. Because cladribine is potently toxic to monocytes, we conducted a phase II trial of cladribine. Cladribine was administered to 13 LCH patients at 0.14 mg/kg per day by 2-hour intravenous infusion for 5 consecutive days, every 4 weeks for a maximum of six courses. Median age was 42 years (range, 19 to 72) and median pretreatment disease duration was 99 months (range, 6 to 252). One patient was untreated, one had received prior prednisone only, one prior radiation only, six prior radiation and chemotherapy, and four prior surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Seven patients had cutaneous involvement, six multifocal osseous, six pulmonary, two each with soft tissue and nodal involvement, and four had diabetes insipidus. Of 13 patients, 12 were evaluable for response and all for toxicity. After a median of three courses (range, 1 to 6), seven (58%) patients achieved complete responses (two pathologic and five clinical) and two (17%) patients achieved partial responses; overall response rate, 75%. Median response follow-up duration was 33 months (range, 1 to 65). Seven patients experienced grade 3 to 4 neutropenia. Only one patient had a documented infection, dermatomal herpes zoster. At a median follow-up of 42 months (range, 5 to 76), 12 patients remain alive and one patient has died. Thus, cladribine has major activity in adult LCH and warrants further investigation in both pediatric and adult LCH as a single agent and in combination with other drugs. (+info)
(8/851) Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer mortality in a population attending school adjacent to styrene-butadiene facilities, 1963-1993.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers and other causes among students. DESIGN: The study used school records, yearbooks, and Texas Department of Health records for the school years 1963-64 to 1992-93 to construct a cohort of 15,403 students. Three mortality databases were searched to identify deaths, and mortality rates in the cohort were compared with mortality rates from the United States and Texas. Computed standardised mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. SETTING: Eastern Texas high school adjacent to facilities that have been producing synthetic styrene-butadiene since 1943. MAIN RESULTS: 338 deaths were identified. The all causes standardised mortality ratio was 0.84 (95% confidence intervals 0.74, 0.95) for men and 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) for women. The standardised mortality ratio for all lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was 1.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.85, 2.87) for men and 0.47 (0.06, 1.70) for women. The slight male excess in lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was stronger among men who attended school for two years or less. CONCLUSIONS: The overall mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer among the students was little different from that of the United States as a whole. A moderate excess for men, predominantly among the shorter-term students, was offset by a deficit among women. These variations are compatible with random fluctuations; the overall pattern is not indicative of an effect of environmental exposure sustained while attending the high school. (+info)