Genetic analysis of Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4 strains associated with neuroborreliosis: evidence for extensive genetic homogeneity. (1/80)

Infection with Borrelia garinii outer surface protein (Osp) A serotype 4 strains has been correlated with the development of neuroborreliosis in Lyme borreliosis patients in Europe. OspA serotype 4 isolates have been recovered primarily from human cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting a tropism for this environment. Previous studies with monoclonal antibodies directed against OspA and OspC demonstrated that OspA serotype 4 strains are antigenically closely related. In view of the pronounced antigenic and genetic variability that has been noted in the Osps of other Borrelia isolates, we sought to determine if OspA serotype 4 strains represent a recently emerged clonal lineage of B. garinii. Toward this goal, a representative group of OspA serotype 4 strains was analyzed for traits that typically exhibit hypervariability among isolates that cause Lyme borreliosis. The following criteria were assessed: (i) ospC sequences, (ii) plasmid composition, (iii) genomic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, and (iv) the RFLP patterns of the upstream homology box (UHB) element which flanks members of the UHB gene family at their 5' end. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate genetic homogeneity, suggesting that OspA serotype 4 strains are a recently emerged clonal lineage with an apparent tropism for the central nervous system.  (+info)

Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. Valaisiana in humans. (2/80)

An immunoglobulin G immunoblot was developed with antigenic extracts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana genospecies and was reacted with sera from patients with neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis, and Lyme arthritis. A detailed analysis of the reactivities of the protein bands was performed, and a two-step scoring procedure was selected to determine the preferential reactivity of sera to one particular genospecies. The discriminative potential of 5 proteins (12-kDa, 16-kDa, 18-kDa, OspA, and 66-kDa proteins) was used as a rapid first-step scoring method, followed by scoring of 14 additional protein bands if necessary. The advantage of this procedure is the low percentage of serum samples with inconclusive results for one of the four species (10% for patients with neuroborreliosis, 6% for patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and 6% for patients with Lyme arthritis). Among 31 serum samples from patients with neuroborreliosis, 16 were more reactive to B. garinii, 7 were more reactive to B. afzelii, 3 were more reactive to B. valaisiana, and 2 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Of 31 serum samples from patients with acrodermatitis, 26 showed a higher level of reactivity to B. afzelii. Of 34 serum samples from patients with Lyme arthritis, 21 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 10 were more reactive to B. afzelii, and 1 was more reactive to B. valaisiana. Our results suggest an organotropism of Borrelia species and provide some evidence of a pathogenic potential of B. valaisiana in humans.  (+info)

Increased IgA rheumatoid factor and V(H)1 associated cross reactive idiotype expression in patients with Lyme arthritis and neuroborreliosis. (3/80)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether autoreactive mechanisms occur in Lyme disease (LD) by determining IgA, IgG and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) concentrations and RF associated cross reactive idiotype (CRI) expression in the serum of LD patients, with comparison to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The RF isotype profiles were determined in 59 patients with LD; erythema migrans (EM) (n=19), neuroborreliosis (NB) (n=20) and Lyme arthritis (LA) (n=20). Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) G6 and G8 (V(H)1 gene associated), D12 (V(H)3 gene associated) and C7 (V(kappa)III gene associated) were then used to determine the RF associated CRI expression on IgM antibodies in 16 of these LD patients (eight seropositive for RF); (EM (n=3), NB (n=6), LA (n=7)). RESULTS: Seven (18%) patients with either NB or LA had increased concentrations of IgA RF compared with none with EM. Significant differences in the number of patients with raised concentrations of IgG RF or IgM RF were not found between the LD patient groups. Five (3NB, 1LA and 1 EM) (31%) and three (2NB and 1LA) (19%) of LD patients had raised concentrations of the CRIs recognised by mAbs G6 and G8, respectively. These CRIs were detected in LD sera both with and without raised concentrations of RF and were not demonstrated on anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies using ELISA. No LD sera tested had raised concentrations of the determinants recognised by mAbs C7 or D12. CONCLUSION: Significantly raised concentrations of IgA RF and increased use of V(H)1 germline gene associated CRIs are found on IgM antibodies in the serum of LD patients. These data indicate the recruitment of autoreactive B lymphocytes in some patients with the later stages of LD.  (+info)

Epitope mapping of the immunodominant invariable region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE in three host species. (4/80)

VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, contains a 26-amino-acid-long immunodominant invariable region, IR(6). In the present study, three overlapping 14-mer peptides reproducing the sequence of IR(6) were used as peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigens to map this invariable region in infected monkeys, mice, and human Lyme disease patients. Antibodies of the two primate species appeared to recognize IR(6) as a single antigenic determinant, while mouse antibodies recognized multiple epitopes within this region.  (+info)

Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review. (5/80)

As part of an ongoing study aiming to define the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis in childhood, we have identified four patients with unusual clinical manifestations. Two patients suffered from a primarily chronic form of neuroborreliosis and displayed only non-specific symptoms. An 11 year old boy presented with long standing symptoms of severe weight loss and chronic headache, while the other patient had pre-existing mental and motor retardation and developed seizures and failure to thrive. Two further children who presented with acute hemiparesis as a result of cerebral ischaemic infarction had a cerebrovascular course of neuroborreliosis. One was a 15 year old girl; the other, a 5 year old boy, is to our knowledge the youngest patient described with this course of illness. Following adequate antibiotic treatment, all patients showed substantial improvement of their respective symptoms. Laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging findings as well as clinical course are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed.  (+info)

False-negative serology in patients with neuroborreliosis and the value of employing of different borrelial strains in serological assays. (6/80)

The risk of obtaining false-negative results in serological assays in serum and CSF specimens with only one strain of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato as antigen was investigated in 79 patients with neuroborreliosis with specimens obtained at initial presentation. Serum antibodies were assessed by immunoblotting; the criteria of Hauser et al. were used to evaluate the test. The intrathecal synthesis of borrelial-specific IgM and IgG antibodies was examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (BbZ160), B. garinii (Bbii50) and B. afzelii (PKO) served as sources of antigen in both assays. All patients produced either a positive IgM or IgG test in serum with at least one strain of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Reactivity of IgM or IgG antibodies, or both, with antigens of all three strains was demonstrated in 67 (85%) of 79 sera. The correlation of results of immunoblotting with different strains was significantly better for IgG (85%) than for IgM antibodies (54%). The variability of positive IgM reactions in 18 specimens was mainly due to the fact that the antibodies were directed to the relevant variable outer-surface protein C (p23). Intrathecal synthesis of IgG antibodies was demonstrated in 58 patients (81%) of 72 and of IgM antibodies in 25 of 58 patients. No patient had isolated intrathecal synthesis of IgM antibodies. The majority of CSF samples (56 of 58) were assessed as IgG antibody-positive, independent of the borrelial strain used as antigen in EIA, whereas only 10 of 25 IgM antibody-positive CSF specimens reacted with all three strains. All patients in the study had intrathecal antibody synthesis demonstrable at 6-week follow-up. From this study it is concluded that there is a small, but real, risk of false-negative serological findings at the time of initial clinical presentation in patients with typical symptoms of neuroborreliosis. In these patients a negative serological result with one strain should prompt the repetition of the test with other strains of B. burgdorferi sensu lato.  (+info)

Two subsets of dendritic cells are present in human cerebrospinal fluid. (7/80)

Little is known about the presence of dendritic cells in the human CNS. To investigate the occurrence of dendritic cells in the CSF, paired blood/CSF samples from patients with multiple sclerosis, acute optic neuritis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, other inflammatory neurological diseases and non-inflammatory neurological diseases were examined using flow cytometry. Almost all CSF samples contained myeloid (lin-CD11c+HLA-DR++CD123(dim)) and plasmacytoid (lin-CD11c-HLA-DR+CD123(high)) dendritic cells. In non-inflammatory neurological diseases, dendritic cells of either subset only constituted up to 1% of CSF mononuclear cells. Myeloid CSF dendritic cells were elevated in optic neuritis, neuroborreliosis and other inflammatory neurological disorders, while plasmacytoid dendritic cells were elevated in all neuroinflammatory conditions studied, with especially high numbers in neuroborreliosis. Numbers of CSF dendritic cells correlated with the common parameters of CNS inflammation. The myeloid dendritic cells in CSF expressed higher levels of HLA-DR, CD86, CD80 and CD40 than those in blood, whereas expression of these molecules by plasmacytoid dendritic cells was equal in blood and CSF. Both CSF and blood dendritic cells expressed the chemokine receptor CCR5. This is the first demonstration that dendritic cells are present in human CSF and that plasmacytoid dendritic cells are present in a non-lymphoid compartment. Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in CSF may contribute to orchestration of the local immune responses.  (+info)

Lyme borreliosis in rhesus macaques: effects of corticosteroids on spirochetal load and isotype switching of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody. (8/80)

Experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection of rhesus monkeys is an excellent model of Lyme disease and closely parallels the infection in humans. Little is known about the interaction of host immunity with the spirochete in patients with chronic infection. We hypothesized that rapid development of anti-B. burgdorferi antibody in immunocompetent nonhuman primates (NHPs) is the major determinant of the reduction of the spirochetal load in Lyme borreliosis. This hypothesis was tested by measurement of the spirochetal load by PCR in association with characterization of the anti-B. burgdorferi humoral immune response in immunocompetent NHPs versus that in corticosteroid-treated NHPs. Although anti-B. burgdorferi immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody was effectively inhibited in dexamethasone (Dex)-treated NHPs, anti-B. burgdorferi IgM antibody levels continued to rise after the first month and reached levels in excess of IgM levels in immunocompetent NHPs. This vigorous production of anti-B. burgdorferi IgM antibodies was also studied in vitro by measurement of antibody produced by B. burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Despite these high IgM antispirochetal antibodies in Dex-treated NHPs, spirochetal loads were much higher in these animals. These data indicate that Dex treatment results in interference with isotype switching in this model and provide evidence that anti-B. burgdorferi IgG antibody is much more effective than IgM antibody in decreasing the spirochetal load in infected animals.  (+info)