Changes in cytokine levels during reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in lungs.
We studied cytokine proteins and mRNAs in mice with two forms of Toxoplasma gondii pneumonia resulting from reactivation of infection. In the first form, mice were infected with T. gondii, developed and recovered from systemic disease, and then developed pneumonia 3 weeks later. As pulmonary inflammation developed, levels of cytokine mRNAs for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells or lung tissue, and the level of IFN-gamma protein increased in BAL fluid. The second form of pneumonia occurred as a complication of primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in mice with dormant T. gondii infection. During CMV disease, IL-2 mRNA levels decreased in lung tissue, IL-10 protein levels increased in lung tissue, and IL-10 protein levels increased in BAL fluid. As the mice recovered from CMV disease, T. gondii infection was reactivated in the lungs and was manifested as T. gondii pneumonia. During CMV-induced T. gondii pneumonia, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA levels increased in BAL cells or lung tissue, and both IFN-gamma and IL-2 protein levels increased in BAL fluid. We concluded that both forms of T. gondii pneumonia are accompanied by increases in both type 1 T-helper and type 2 T-helper cytokine levels in lungs. The mechanism of CMV-induced reactivation of T. gondii infection in lungs may involve local decreases in IL-2 levels and/or increases in IL-10 levels. (+info)
The real incidence of extracapsular (satellite) cysts of liver echinococcus.
BACKGROUND: The presence of extracapsular (Satellite) cysts in liver echinococcus granulosus is known for many years. In one of our previous studies of radiological (CT) material they were found to be present in 16% of cases. METHODS: In the present study the operative findings, in cases of total capsectomy (cystopericystectomy) or partial lobectomy are presented. RESULTS: The real incidence of these cysts in operative specimens was as high as 29,5%. They were present in 15 out of 51 totally excised cysts. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that satellite cysts are present more often than they are radiologically detected. As they can be incriminated as a cause of recurrence of the disease they must be excised en block with the main parasitic cysts, by means of more radical procedures such as cystopericystectomy or partial hepatectomy, whenever it is feasible. (+info)
Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplant recipients: report of two cases and review.
Toxoplasma gondii may cause disseminated disease in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in BMT patients is rarely described. Mortality rates of >90% have been previously reported. Since pulmonary toxoplasmosis is extremely difficult to diagnose, it is very often detected only at autopsy. Two cases of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in BMT recipients that were diagnosed by visualization of T. gondii tachyzoites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and by a new semi-nested PCR method amplifying 18S rRNA from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are presented, and the literature on pulmonary toxoplasmosis in BMT patients is reviewed. (+info)
Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis in travelers returning from Lake Malawi, sub-Saharan Africa.
We describe four cases of acute schistosomiasis presenting to the Infectious Diseases Unit of John Radcliffe Hospital (Oxford, England) during a 2-month period in autumn 1997. All four patients had swum in Lake Malawi, a freshwater lake in sub-Saharan Africa that is associated with Schistosoma haematobium and, less commonly, Schistosoma mansoni infections. All four patients had a severe acute illness and had prominent pulmonary involvement, both clinically and radiologically. This represents a change in the recognized pattern of presentation and could possibly reflect a new parasite variant in the lake. (+info)
Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: report of six cases.
We report six cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis diagnosed at our laboratory with clinical and pathological features. The nodules of dirofilariasis were round in three cases as previously reported, however dumbbell-shaped in two cases. The nodule did not attach to the pleura in four cases. Microscopically, the nodules were granulomas composed of central coagulation necrosis and peripheral fibrosis with round cell infiltration, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells. Necrotic pulmonary artery with single or multiple sections of degenerated nematode was observed in the center of the nodule. Dilated bronchioles with inflammation were observed in the nodule in four cases. Collapse of the alveoli, organizing pneumonia, hemosiderin-laden macrophages were observed around the nodule. We suppose that the nodule is not an infarction but a granuloma caused by antigen released from the nematode. Because the pulmonary dirofilariasis is difficult to be differentiated from primary or metastatic lung carcinoma, and the inflammation exists around the nodule, the nodule should be removed surgically. (+info)
Significance of schistosomal granuloma modulation.
Hepatic Schistosoma mansoni periovular granulomas undergo changes in size, cellular composition and appearance with time. This phenomenon, known as "immunological modulation", has been thought to reflect host immunological status. However, as modulation has not been observed outside the liver, participation of local factors, hitherto little considered, seems crucial. Components of the extracellular matrix of periovular granulomas of the mouse were particularly studied in three different organs (liver, lung and intestine) and during three periods of infection time (acute, intermediate and chronic) by means of histological, biochemical and immunofluorescence techniques, while quantitative data were evaluated by computerized morphometry, in order to investigate participation of local factors in granuloma modulation. Results confirmed modulation as a exclusively hepatic phenomenon, since pulmonary and intestinal granulomas, formed around mature eggs, did not change size and appearance with time. The matricial components which were investigated (Type I, III and IV collagens, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycans and elastin) were found in all granulomas and in all organs examined. However, their presence was much more prominent in the liver. Elastin was only found in hepatic granulomas of chronic infection. The large amount of extracellular matrix components found in hepatic granulomas was the main change responsible for the morphological aspects of modulation. Therefore, the peculiar environment of the liver ultimately determines the changes identified in schistosomal granuloma as "modulation". (+info)
The first Korean case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis.
Human pulmonary dirofilariasis has been documented from many parts of the world, but not in Korea so far. We experienced a patient of pulmonary dirofilariasis who had visited a local clinic because of chest pain for 1 month. On chest radiograph, a coin lesion of 2 cm diameter and enlargement of the mediastinal lymph node were shown. An exploratory lung resection was done. Pathologically the lesion was a pulmonary dirofilariasis complicated with necrotic pneumonia, fibrosis, and infarction. At the center of the lesion, degenerated nematode sections with multilayered cuticle, thick musculature, and bilateral internal ridges on each side were found, which was identified to be Dirofilaria immitis. This is the first report of human pulmonary dirofilariasis in Korea. (+info)
Paragonimiasis westermani with multifocal lesions in lungs and skin.
We report a case of Paragonimus westermani infection with a reticulonodular lesion in the right lung, left pleural effusion, and a mobile subcutaneous mass. Analyses of pleural effusion and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed marked eosinophilia and high levels of eosinophil cationic protein and interleukin (IL)-5. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the presence of pneumonia with mild eosinophilic infiltration but remarkable lymphocytic infiltration. In this patient, high IL-5 levels in both BALF and pleural effusion could explain the remarkable eosinophilia. (+info)