Effect of hyperoxia on human macrophage cytokine response.
In the development of lung damage induced by oxidative stress, it has been proposed that changes in alveolar macrophages (AM) function with modifications in cytokine production may contribute to altered repair processes. To characterize the changes in profiles of cytokine production by macrophages exposed to oxidants, the effects of hyperoxia (95% O2) on interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were studied. Experiments were first performed using AM obtained from control subjects and children with interstitial lung disease. Results showed that a 48 h O2 exposure was associated with two distinct patterns of response: a decrease in TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 expression, and an increase in IL-8. To complete these observations we used U937 cells that were exposed for various durations to hyperoxia. We confirmed that a 48 h O2 exposure led to similar changes with a decrease in TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 production and an increase in IL-8. Interestingly, this cytokine response was preceded during the first hours of O2 treatment by induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6. These data indicate that hyperoxia induces changes in the expression of macrophages inflammatory cytokines, and that these modifications appear to be influenced by the duration of O2 exposure. (+info)
Influence of ethnic background on clinical and serologic features in patients with systemic sclerosis and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ethnicity on clinical and serologic expression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody. METHODS: Clinical and serologic features, as well as HLA class II allele frequencies, were compared among 47 North American white, 15 North American black, 43 Japanese, and 12 Choctaw Native American SSc patients with anti-topo I antibody. RESULTS: The frequency of progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lower, and cumulative survival rates were better in white compared with black and Japanese patients. Sera of white and black patients frequently recognized the portion adjacent to the carboxyl terminus of topo I, sera of Japanese patients preferentially recognized the portion adjacent to the amino terminus of topo I, and sera of Choctaw patients recognized both portions of topo I. Anti-RNA polymerase II and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were present together with anti-topo I antibody more frequently in sera of Japanese patients than in sera of white patients. The HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with anti-topo I antibody differed; i.e., DRB1*1101-*1104 in whites and blacks, DRB1*1502 in Japanese, and DRB1*1602 in Choctaws. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic background was an independent determinant affecting development of severe lung disease as well as survival. CONCLUSION: Clinical and serologic features in SSc patients were strongly influenced by ethnic background. The variability of disease expression in the 4 ethnic groups suggests that multiple factors linked to ethnicity, including genetic and environmental factors, modulate clinical manifestations, disease course, and autoantibody status in SSc. (+info)
Increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease, obstructive bronchiolitis, and alopecia with busulfan versus total body irradiation: long-term results of a randomized trial in allogeneic marrow recipients with leukemia. Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group.
Leukemic patients receiving marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors were randomized to treatment with either busulfan 16 mg/kg (n = 88) or total body irradiation ([TBI] n = 79) in addition to cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. The patients were observed for a period of 5 to 9 years. Busulfan-treated patients had an increased risk of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver (12% v 1%, P =.01) and hemorrhagic cystitis (32% v 10%, P =.003). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was similar in the two groups, but the 7-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 59% in the busulfan-treated group versus 47% in the TBI group (P =.05). Death from GVHD was more common in the busulfan group (22% v 3%, P <.001). Obstructive bronchiolitis occurred in 26% of the busulfan patients but in only 5% of the TBI patients (P <.01). Complete alopecia developed in 8 busulfan patients and partial alopecia in 17, versus five with partial alopecia in the TBI group (P <.001). Cataracts occurred in 5 busulfan-treated patients and 16 TBI patients (P =.02). The incidence of relapse after 7 years was 29% in both groups. Seven-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients with early disease was 21% in the busulfan group and 12% in the TBI group. In patients with more advanced disease, the corresponding figures were 64% and 22%, respectively (P =.004). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) in patients with early disease was 68% in busulfan-treated patients and 66% in TBI patients. However, 7-year LFS in patients with more advanced disease was 17% in the busulfan group versus 49% in the TBI group (P <.01). In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase, 7-year LFS was 72% and 83% in the two groups, respectively. (+info)
Impact of cyclosporine and methylprednisolone dose used for prophylaxis and therapy of graft-versus-host disease on survival and relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
In order to determine whether doses of cyclosporine and methylprednisolone used for prophylaxis and therapy of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have any influence on relapse and survival following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we studied 176 adult patients with hematologic malignancies, who underwent a first allogeneic transplant from an HLA-identical sibling donor. Two methods of management of acute GVHD used in two different centers were compared: group I included 62 patients who had 'standard' management of GVHD including prophylaxis with 1-3 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine and treatment with 2 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone when acute GVHD developed; group II included 114 patients who received 'intensive' management of GVHD including prophylaxis with 5 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine and treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone (8-20 mg/kg/day for 3 days) at the onset of GVHD. The overall incidence of GVHD was the same in both groups. However, acute GVHD was more severe in group I than in group II (P < 0.0001), with consequently less resolution of GVHD after treatment in group I (61%) than in group II (80%) (P = 0.06). Overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) did not differ between the two groups. However, actuarial risk of disease relapse was significantly higher in group II than in group I (36% vs 17%, P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis taking into account known factors influencing GVHD and relapse, only type of GVHD management and age were significantly predictive for the occurrence of GVHD, while only type of GVHD management and pathology other than chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were predictive for relapse. This study demonstrates that intensity of GVHD prophylaxis and therapy can influence the graft-versus-leukemia effect by decreasing severity of GVHD but at the price of increasing relapse rate post transplant. (+info)
Pulmonary function abnormalities in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a widespread necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels characterized by nonthrombocytopenic purpura. Pulmonary involvement is a rare fatal complication with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible early lung function abnormalities and to establish any relationship with the clinical activity of the disease. Fifteen children with HSP and without clinical or radiological evidence of lung involvement underwent pulmonary function study at the onset of the disease. A sample of 28 subjects matched by age, height, and weight was chosen as a control group. After a mean of 21 months (range 12-43) lung function tests were repeated in 10 of the previously studied children. During the acute phase of the disease the transfer factor for carbon monoxide, measured by steady-state (TL,COss) and single-breath (TL,COsb) methods, was found to be significantly lower in children with HSP than control subjects. There was no significant relationship between pulmonary function tests with symptoms and signs at onset, nor was there any correlation between variables and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration. In all but two patients, clinical recovery was observed within 6 weeks from the onset of the disease. In one case relapses of purpuric skin lesions were observed during the first 3 months of follow-up. The second case had relapses of purpuric skin lesions and microscopical haematuria during the 12 months following the onset of the disease with characteristic IgA mesangial deposition on renal biopsy. Although the overall mean value of TL,COsb improved from baseline to the second investigation, in both patients the recurrences of clinical signs were associated with a slight impairment of TL,COsb at the second evaluation. These data suggest an early subclinical lung impairment in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura during the active phase of the disease. The presence of isolated pulmonary function abnormalities was not associated with the subsequent development of lung disease. (+info)
Pediatric AIDS-associated lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary arterio-occlusive disease: role of VCAM-1/VLA-4 adhesion pathway and human herpesviruses.
Because the mechanisms of lymphocyte accumulation in the lungs of children with AIDS-associated lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) are unknown, we studied the relative contributions of known adhesion pathways in mediating lymphocyte adherence to endothelium and the potential role of human herpesviruses in the expansion of these lesions. LIP was characterized by lymphoid hyperplasia of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and infiltration of the pulmonary interstitium with CD8(+) T lymphocytes. In some individuals there was expansion of the alveolar septae with dense aggregates of B lymphocytes, many containing the Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) genome. Patients with concurrent EBV infection also demonstrated large-vessel arteriopathy characterized by thickening of the intimae with collagen and smooth muscle. Venular endothelium from the lung of children with LIP, but not uninflamed lung from other children with AIDS or lung from children with nonspecific pneumonitis, expressed high levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein. In turn, inflammatory cells expressing very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), the leukocyte ligand for VCAM-1, were the predominant perivascular infiltrate associated with vessels expressing VCAM-1. Expression of other endothelial adhesion molecules, including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, was not uniformly associated with LIP. Using a tissue adhesion assay combined with immunohistochemistry for VCAM-1, we show that CD8(+) T cell clones that express VLA-4 bind preferentially to pulmonary vessels in sites of LIP: vessels that expressed high levels of VCAM-1. When tissues and cells were pretreated with antibodies to VCAM-1 or VLA-4, respectively, adhesion was inhibited by >/=80%. Thus, infiltration of alveolar septae with CD8(+) T cells was highly correlative with VCAM-1/VLA-4 adhesive interactions, and focal expansion of B cells was coincidental to co-infection with EBV. (+info)
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are currently classified into four categories: usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, acute interstitial pneumonia and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The fibrotic process in interstitial pneumonias appears to result from a complex interaction between fibroblasts, other lung parenchymal cells and macrophages. The complex relationship between the local release of growth-promoting cytokines by alveolar macrophages and resident fibroblasts represents a necessary step for fibrosis or remodeling after lung injury. Injury to the epithelium and basement membranes is likely necessary for the fibrotic process to occur. Usual interstitial pneumonia, most frequent among interstitial pneumonias and has a poor prognosis, appears on high-resolution CT as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, the second most frequent and has a better prognosis than usual interstitial pneumonia, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity on CT. Acute interstitial pneumonia with high mortality rate presents as extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia with good prognosis presents as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones. (+info)
Finding-specific display presets for computed radiography soft-copy reading.
Much work has been done to optimize the display of cross-sectional modality imaging examinations for soft-copy reading (i.e., window/level tissue presets, and format presentations such as tile and stack modes, four-on-one, nine-on-one, etc). Less attention has been paid to the display of digital forms of the conventional projection x-ray. The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of providing presets for computed radiography (CR) soft-copy display, based not on the window/level settings, but on processing applied to the image optimized for visualization of specific findings, pathologies, etc (i.e., pneumothorax, tumor, tube location). It is felt that digital display of CR images based on finding-specific processing presets has the potential to: speed reading of digital projection x-ray examinations on soft copy; improve diagnostic efficacy; standardize display across examination type, clinical scenario, important key findings, and significant negatives; facilitate image comparison; and improve confidence in and acceptance of soft-copy reading. Clinical chest images are acquired using an Agfa-Gevaert (Mortsel, Belgium) ADC 70 CR scanner and Fuji (Stamford, CT) 9000 and AC2 CR scanners. Those demonstrating pertinent findings are transferred over the clinical picture archiving and communications system (PACS) network to a research image processing station (Agfa PS5000), where the optimal image-processing settings per finding, pathologic category, etc, are developed in conjunction with a thoracic radiologist, by manipulating the multiscale image contrast amplification (Agfa MUSICA) algorithm parameters. Soft-copy display of images processed with finding-specific settings are compared with the standard default image presentation for 50 cases of each category. Comparison is scored using a 5-point scale with the positive scale denoting the standard presentation is preferred over the finding-specific processing, the negative scale denoting the finding-specific processing is preferred over the standard presentation, and zero denoting no difference. Processing settings have been developed for several findings including pneumothorax and lung nodules, and clinical cases are currently being collected in preparation for formal clinical trials. Preliminary results indicate a preference for the optimized-processing presentation of images over the standard default, particularly by inexperienced radiology residents and referring clinicians. (+info)